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如何提升充電便捷性

2019/2/28 9:07:13??????點擊:
電(dian)(dian)動汽(qi)車動力(li)源于電(dian)(dian)池,目前(qian)使用的(de)電(dian)(dian)池都是二次(ci)電(dian)(dian)池,即可(ke)充電(dian)(dian)池。充電(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)池的(de)壽命指標是充電(dian)(dian)次(ci)數。通俗理解,充電(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)池隨時間延長,它會衰(shuai)減(jian)的(de)。如何防止電(dian)(dian)池衰(shuai)減(jian)過快,同(tong)時又要滿足大眾對(dui)充電(dian)(dian)便捷性的(de)要求,是大家比較關(guan)心的(de)。下面對(dui)電(dian)(dian)動汽(qi)車充電(dian)(dian)機理探討及(ji)不(bu)同(tong)方式(shi)難點分析(xi)進行分析(xi),供使用者參考。
一(yi)、目前推廣(guang)應用的難點是一(yi)次持續里程短、充(chong)電(dian)時間長(chang)
1)一(yi)(yi)次持續里(li)程短。目前電(dian)(dian)動汽車(che)一(yi)(yi)次持續里(li)程比較合理的在(zai)200公里(li)到300公里(li)之間。但與燃油車(che)相比還差一(yi)(yi)半以上。商家一(yi)(yi)而再三打廣告,說一(yi)(yi)次充電(dian)(dian)能(neng)(neng)跑(pao)500公里(li)、800公里(li),是在(zai)誤導了(le)消費者(zhe)。實際(ji)情況(kuang)是,電(dian)(dian)動汽車(che)一(yi)(yi)次充電(dian)(dian)能(neng)(neng)跑(pao)多少公里(li),與車(che)載(zai)電(dian)(dian)池(chi)多少是成線性有關的。要跑(pao)得(de)越遠,車(che)載(zai)電(dian)(dian)池(chi)量必(bi)須裝(zhuang)越多。
車(che)載電(dian)池(chi)(chi)量(liang)在(zai)汽(qi)車(che)工程設(she)計值上,必須要考(kao)量(liang)其技(ji)(ji)術上可(ke)(ke)行性(xing),經濟性(xing)的(de)合理(li)性(xing)。與(yu)燃(ran)料車(che)的(de)油(you)(you)箱(xiang)容積大小設(she)計是(shi)(shi)一(yi)樣(yang),不(bu)是(shi)(shi)可(ke)(ke)以任(ren)意地無(wu)限大的(de)。目前電(dian)動(dong)(dong)汽(qi)車(che)的(de)一(yi)次里程不(bu)能做(zuo)到燃(ran)油(you)(you)車(che)一(yi)樣(yang)的(de)長(chang),主要理(li)由是(shi)(shi)由于動(dong)(dong)力電(dian)池(chi)(chi)的(de)比能量(liang)與(yu)汽(qi)柴(chai)油(you)(you)相相比,還差100多倍。我們每天能聽到動(dong)(dong)力電(dian)池(chi)(chi)技(ji)(ji)術在(zai)進步,但是(shi)(shi)從科(ke)學上講,在(zai)短(duan)期內,動(dong)(dong)力電(dian)池(chi)(chi)新能源汽(qi)車(che)一(yi)次里程上沒(mei)有可(ke)(ke)能趕上燃(ran)油(you)(you)汽(qi)車(che)的(de)。

2)充(chong)電(dian)時(shi)間長(chang)達(da)6-8個小時(shi),是比較科學的(de)。也就是說,實際上電(dian)動汽車充(chong)電(dian)的(de)便捷性(xing)是大家(jia)不能接受(shou)的(de)。一是用家(jia)里220V交流(liu)電(dian)來充(chong)電(dian),充(chong)電(dian)時(shi)間要(yao)6-8小時(shi);二是到充(chong)電(dian)站(zhan)用直流(liu)充(chong)電(dian),除了排(pai)隊外,充(chong)電(dian)過程(cheng)要(yao)的(de)時(shi)間也必須要(yao)在30分鐘(zhong)以上;三是買換(huan)電(dian)池(chi)的(de)車吧(ba),基本上沒有(you)賣的(de)。

二、提高充電(dian)方便性基本途徑
1)如果(guo)(guo)能用民用交(jiao)流電(dian)充(chong)電(dian),如果(guo)(guo)充(chong)電(dian)時間少于要3小(xiao)時能接(jie)受;
2)如果到充(chong)(chong)電(dian)站用直流充(chong)(chong)電(dian),充(chong)(chong)電(dian)時(shi)間(jian)少(shao)于(yu)1個小時(shi)能接受;
3)如果換電池,必須電池是自己專用,是可以接受。
三、鋰離子(zi)動(dong)力(li)電池組的充電模式
下面(mian)是充電(dian)曲(qu)線,即充電(dian)模式采用“限流、限壓”兩(liang)階段充電(dian)模式。
1)限(xian)流過程:
這一階段的(de)(de)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)叫“限(xian)流(liu)(liu)”充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)保(bao)持在限(xian)流(liu)(liu)值(zhi)。隨著充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)的(de)(de)延續,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動勢(shi)不(bu)(bu)斷上升(sheng),電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓也不(bu)(bu)斷上升(sheng)。當電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓上升(sheng)到允許的(de)(de)最(zui)高(gao)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓時,保(bao)持恒(heng)壓充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。廠家建議:一般采用最(zui)佳充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)倍率(lv)(鋰離子電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)為0.3CA)進行(xing)限(xian)流(liu)(liu)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。
2)限壓過程(cheng):
在這(zhe)一(yi)階(jie)段(duan),由于電(dian)(dian)池(chi)電(dian)(dian)動勢(shi)還在不斷(duan)上(shang)升,而充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)壓又(you)保持(chi)不變,所以電(dian)(dian)池(chi)的(de)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)流(liu)呈(cheng)雙曲(qu)線趨勢(shi)不斷(duan)下(xia)降(jiang)(jiang),一(yi)直下(xia)降(jiang)(jiang)到零。這(zhe)一(yi)階(jie)段(duan)的(de)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)叫恒“恒壓”充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian),這(zhe)一(yi)階(jie)段(duan)的(de)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)壓:U=E+IR=恒壓值。
(實際做法:當充(chong)電(dian)電(dian)流減小到0.015CA時就可停止充(chong)電(dian)。)
三、對(dui)離(li)子動力電池組充(chong)電,實(shi)際是一(yi)個動態的(de)過(guo)程(cheng)
充電系(xi)統必須具(ju)有自動調(diao)節充電參(can)數、自動控制和自動保護功(gong)能:
1)自動調節充(chong)電(dian)參(can)數
a)例(li)如,在充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)時,尤其(qi)在恒壓(ya)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)階段,如果電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)組中(zhong)有(you)某一(yi)個單體(ti)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)的(de)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)超過允許的(de)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(根據不(bu)同鋰電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)的(de)特性一(yi)般設(she)定為3.9V~4.3V之間(jian))時,充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)系統應會根據電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)管(guan)理系統(BMS)輸(shu)出的(de)信號(hao),自(zi)動減(jian)小充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)和電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流,使(shi)該電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)的(de)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)不(bu)超過允許的(de)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya),防(fang)止(zhi)該電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)過壓(ya)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。
b)再如,在(zai)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)開始(shi)時,經電(dian)(dian)(dian)池管(guan)理系統(tong)(BMS)監測(ce)到有某(mou)一個單體(ti)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池的電(dian)(dian)(dian)壓過低,充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)系統(tong)應能(neng)自動改(gai)小初始(shi)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)流,待電(dian)(dian)(dian)池的電(dian)(dian)(dian)壓正常后,再轉(zhuan)入(ru)正常充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)。
所以,在(zai)充電過(guo)程中,充電系統必須能根據(ju)電池組的狀態、電池管(guan)理系統(BMS)輸出的信息(xi)和(he)整(zheng)車監控輸出的信息(xi),自(zi)動(dong)調節(jie)充電參(can)數(shu)和(he)自(zi)動(dong)控制充電。
2)自動控制和自動保護功能
在充電(dian)(dian)過程中,電(dian)(dian)池組(zu)和電(dian)(dian)動車發生任何不正常情況時,如電(dian)(dian)池組(zu)短路、斷(duan)路、高溫、起(qi)火(huo)和有電(dian)(dian)池損壞時,充電(dian)(dian)系(xi)統應(ying)能迅速切斷(duan)電(dian)(dian)源,停(ting)止充電(dian)(dian)。
3)與整車CAN總線通信
在充電過程中(zhong),充電系統(tong)的(de)信息可與整車CAN總線通信。

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