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如何提升充電便捷性

2019/2/28 9:07:13??????點擊:
電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)汽(qi)車動(dong)力源于電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi),目前使用的(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)都(dou)是二次(ci)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi),即可充電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)。充電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)的(de)(de)壽命(ming)指標(biao)是充電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)次(ci)數。通俗理(li)解,充電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)隨時間延(yan)長,它會衰減的(de)(de)。如(ru)何防(fang)止電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)衰減過快,同時又要滿(man)足大眾對充電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)便(bian)捷性(xing)的(de)(de)要求,是大家比較(jiao)關心的(de)(de)。下(xia)面對電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)汽(qi)車充電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機理(li)探討及(ji)不同方式難點分(fen)析進行(xing)分(fen)析,供使用者參考。
一、目(mu)前推(tui)廣應用的難點是一次持續里程短、充(chong)電時間長
1)一(yi)(yi)次(ci)持(chi)續(xu)里(li)程短。目前電(dian)(dian)動汽車一(yi)(yi)次(ci)持(chi)續(xu)里(li)程比較合理的(de)在(zai)200公(gong)(gong)里(li)到(dao)300公(gong)(gong)里(li)之間。但(dan)與燃油車相(xiang)比還差一(yi)(yi)半以(yi)上。商家一(yi)(yi)而再三(san)打廣告,說一(yi)(yi)次(ci)充電(dian)(dian)能跑(pao)500公(gong)(gong)里(li)、800公(gong)(gong)里(li),是(shi)在(zai)誤導了消(xiao)費者。實際情況(kuang)是(shi),電(dian)(dian)動汽車一(yi)(yi)次(ci)充電(dian)(dian)能跑(pao)多(duo)少(shao)公(gong)(gong)里(li),與車載電(dian)(dian)池多(duo)少(shao)是(shi)成線性有關的(de)。要跑(pao)得越遠(yuan),車載電(dian)(dian)池量必須裝越多(duo)。
車(che)載電池(chi)(chi)量(liang)(liang)在(zai)汽(qi)車(che)工(gong)程設計(ji)值上(shang),必須要考量(liang)(liang)其技術上(shang)可(ke)(ke)(ke)行性,經(jing)濟性的(de)合理性。與(yu)(yu)燃料車(che)的(de)油箱(xiang)容(rong)積大小設計(ji)是一樣,不(bu)是可(ke)(ke)(ke)以任意地無限大的(de)。目(mu)前電動汽(qi)車(che)的(de)一次里程不(bu)能(neng)(neng)做(zuo)到(dao)燃油車(che)一樣的(de)長,主要理由是由于動力電池(chi)(chi)的(de)比能(neng)(neng)量(liang)(liang)與(yu)(yu)汽(qi)柴(chai)油相(xiang)相(xiang)比,還差100多(duo)倍。我們每天(tian)能(neng)(neng)聽(ting)到(dao)動力電池(chi)(chi)技術在(zai)進(jin)步,但(dan)是從科學(xue)上(shang)講,在(zai)短期內,動力電池(chi)(chi)新能(neng)(neng)源汽(qi)車(che)一次里程上(shang)沒(mei)有可(ke)(ke)(ke)能(neng)(neng)趕上(shang)燃油汽(qi)車(che)的(de)。

2)充電(dian)時(shi)(shi)間長達6-8個小時(shi)(shi),是比較(jiao)科學的(de)(de)。也(ye)就是說,實際上電(dian)動(dong)汽車充電(dian)的(de)(de)便捷性是大家不能接受的(de)(de)。一是用家里220V交流電(dian)來充電(dian),充電(dian)時(shi)(shi)間要6-8小時(shi)(shi);二是到充電(dian)站用直流充電(dian),除了(le)排隊外,充電(dian)過(guo)程要的(de)(de)時(shi)(shi)間也(ye)必須要在30分鐘以上;三是買換電(dian)池的(de)(de)車吧,基本上沒有賣的(de)(de)。

二、提高(gao)充電方便性基(ji)本途徑
1)如果能(neng)用民用交流電充(chong)電,如果充(chong)電時間少(shao)于要3小時能(neng)接受;
2)如(ru)果到充(chong)(chong)(chong)電站用直流充(chong)(chong)(chong)電,充(chong)(chong)(chong)電時間少于1個小(xiao)時能(neng)接受;
3)如果換電(dian)池,必(bi)須電(dian)池是自己專用,是可以接受(shou)。
三、鋰離子動力(li)電(dian)池(chi)組(zu)的充電(dian)模式
下面是充(chong)電曲線,即充(chong)電模(mo)式采(cai)用“限流(liu)、限壓”兩階段充(chong)電模(mo)式。
1)限流(liu)過(guo)程:
這一階(jie)段的充(chong)電(dian)叫“限流”充(chong)電(dian),充(chong)電(dian)電(dian)流保(bao)持(chi)在限流值。隨著充(chong)電(dian)的延續(xu),電(dian)池電(dian)動勢不斷(duan)上(shang)升,電(dian)池的充(chong)電(dian)壓也(ye)不斷(duan)上(shang)升。當(dang)電(dian)池電(dian)壓上(shang)升到(dao)允許的最高(gao)充(chong)電(dian)電(dian)壓時,保(bao)持(chi)恒(heng)壓充(chong)電(dian)。廠家建議:一般采用最佳充(chong)電(dian)倍率(鋰(li)離子電(dian)池為0.3CA)進(jin)行限流充(chong)電(dian)。
2)限壓過(guo)程:
在這一階(jie)段,由于(yu)電(dian)池電(dian)動勢還在不斷上升,而充(chong)電(dian)電(dian)壓(ya)又保持不變,所以電(dian)池的(de)充(chong)電(dian)流呈雙曲線趨勢不斷下降,一直下降到零。這一階(jie)段的(de)充(chong)電(dian)叫恒“恒壓(ya)”充(chong)電(dian),這一階(jie)段的(de)充(chong)電(dian)電(dian)壓(ya):U=E+IR=恒壓(ya)值。
(實際(ji)做(zuo)法:當充(chong)電電流減(jian)小到0.015CA時就可停止充(chong)電。)
三、對離子動力電池組充電,實際是一(yi)個動態的過程(cheng)
充(chong)電系統必(bi)須具(ju)有自動(dong)調節充(chong)電參(can)數、自動(dong)控制和自動(dong)保護功(gong)能:
1)自動調節充(chong)電(dian)參數
a)例如(ru),在(zai)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)時(shi),尤其(qi)在(zai)恒(heng)壓(ya)(ya)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)階段,如(ru)果(guo)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)組中有(you)某一(yi)個單(dan)體(ti)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)的(de)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)超過允許(xu)(xu)的(de)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(根據不同(tong)鋰電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)的(de)特性一(yi)般設定為3.9V~4.3V之間)時(shi),充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)系統應會根據電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)管(guan)理系統(BMS)輸出的(de)信(xin)號,自(zi)動(dong)減小充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)和(he)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu),使該電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)的(de)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)不超過允許(xu)(xu)的(de)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya),防止(zhi)該電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)過壓(ya)(ya)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。
b)再如,在充電(dian)(dian)開(kai)始時,經電(dian)(dian)池管理(li)系(xi)統(BMS)監測到有某一個(ge)單體電(dian)(dian)池的電(dian)(dian)壓過低(di),充電(dian)(dian)系(xi)統應(ying)能(neng)自(zi)動改小初(chu)始充電(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)流,待電(dian)(dian)池的電(dian)(dian)壓正(zheng)常后,再轉入正(zheng)常充電(dian)(dian)。
所以,在(zai)充(chong)電(dian)過程中,充(chong)電(dian)系(xi)統必須能根據電(dian)池(chi)組的(de)(de)狀態、電(dian)池(chi)管理系(xi)統(BMS)輸出的(de)(de)信息和(he)整車監控輸出的(de)(de)信息,自(zi)動(dong)調節充(chong)電(dian)參數和(he)自(zi)動(dong)控制充(chong)電(dian)。
2)自(zi)動控制(zhi)和自(zi)動保護功能
在充電(dian)過程中(zhong),電(dian)池(chi)組(zu)和電(dian)動車發生(sheng)任何(he)不正常(chang)情況時,如電(dian)池(chi)組(zu)短路、斷路、高溫、起(qi)火(huo)和有電(dian)池(chi)損壞時,充電(dian)系統應(ying)能迅速切斷電(dian)源,停(ting)止充電(dian)。
3)與整(zheng)車CAN總線通(tong)信
在充電過程中,充電系統的(de)信息(xi)可與整車CAN總線通信。

上海施(shi)能電器(qi)設備(bei)有限公司(si)始建于1984年,上海市高新技術企業,中國工業車輛優秀配套供應商,上海電器行業名優產品,主要生產工頻系列充電機,高頻系列充電機,鋰電池充電機,系列放電機,系列充放電機等電器產品。


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