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如何提升充電便捷性

2019/2/28 9:07:13??????點擊:
電(dian)動(dong)汽車動(dong)力源(yuan)于電(dian)池(chi),目前使用的(de)(de)電(dian)池(chi)都是(shi)二次(ci)電(dian)池(chi),即可充(chong)電(dian)池(chi)。充(chong)電(dian)電(dian)池(chi)的(de)(de)壽(shou)命指標(biao)是(shi)充(chong)電(dian)次(ci)數。通俗理解,充(chong)電(dian)電(dian)池(chi)隨時間延長,它會(hui)衰減的(de)(de)。如何防止(zhi)電(dian)池(chi)衰減過快(kuai),同時又要滿足(zu)大(da)眾對充(chong)電(dian)便捷性的(de)(de)要求,是(shi)大(da)家(jia)比較關心(xin)的(de)(de)。下面對電(dian)動(dong)汽車充(chong)電(dian)機理探討及不同方式難(nan)點分(fen)析進行(xing)分(fen)析,供使用者參考(kao)。
一(yi)、目前(qian)推廣應用的難點是一(yi)次(ci)持續里程短、充電時(shi)間長
1)一次(ci)持續里(li)程短。目前電(dian)動汽(qi)車(che)一次(ci)持續里(li)程比(bi)較合理的在200公(gong)里(li)到300公(gong)里(li)之間(jian)。但(dan)與(yu)燃油車(che)相(xiang)比(bi)還(huan)差一半以(yi)上。商家一而再三(san)打廣告(gao),說一次(ci)充電(dian)能跑500公(gong)里(li)、800公(gong)里(li),是在誤導了(le)消(xiao)費者。實際情況是,電(dian)動汽(qi)車(che)一次(ci)充電(dian)能跑多(duo)(duo)少公(gong)里(li),與(yu)車(che)載(zai)電(dian)池多(duo)(duo)少是成線(xian)性(xing)有關的。要(yao)跑得越遠(yuan),車(che)載(zai)電(dian)池量必須裝越多(duo)(duo)。
車(che)(che)載(zai)電池(chi)量(liang)在汽車(che)(che)工程(cheng)設(she)計值上(shang),必須要考量(liang)其技術上(shang)可行性(xing),經濟(ji)性(xing)的合(he)理性(xing)。與(yu)燃(ran)(ran)料車(che)(che)的油箱容積大小設(she)計是一(yi)樣,不是可以任意地無(wu)限大的。目(mu)前電動汽車(che)(che)的一(yi)次(ci)里(li)程(cheng)不能做到(dao)燃(ran)(ran)油車(che)(che)一(yi)樣的長,主要理由(you)是由(you)于動力電池(chi)的比能量(liang)與(yu)汽柴油相相比,還(huan)差100多倍。我們(men)每(mei)天能聽到(dao)動力電池(chi)技術在進步(bu),但(dan)是從科(ke)學上(shang)講,在短期內(nei),動力電池(chi)新能源汽車(che)(che)一(yi)次(ci)里(li)程(cheng)上(shang)沒有可能趕上(shang)燃(ran)(ran)油汽車(che)(che)的。

2)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)時間長達6-8個(ge)小時,是(shi)(shi)(shi)比較(jiao)科學的(de)(de)。也就是(shi)(shi)(shi)說,實際上電(dian)(dian)動汽車(che)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)的(de)(de)便捷性是(shi)(shi)(shi)大家(jia)不能接受的(de)(de)。一是(shi)(shi)(shi)用家(jia)里220V交流電(dian)(dian)來(lai)充(chong)電(dian)(dian),充(chong)電(dian)(dian)時間要6-8小時;二(er)是(shi)(shi)(shi)到充(chong)電(dian)(dian)站用直流充(chong)電(dian)(dian),除了排隊外,充(chong)電(dian)(dian)過程要的(de)(de)時間也必須要在30分鐘以上;三是(shi)(shi)(shi)買換(huan)電(dian)(dian)池的(de)(de)車(che)吧,基本上沒有賣的(de)(de)。

二(er)、提高充電方便性基(ji)本(ben)途徑(jing)
1)如(ru)果能(neng)用民用交流電充電,如(ru)果充電時間少于要(yao)3小(xiao)時能(neng)接受(shou);
2)如果到充電站用直(zhi)流充電,充電時(shi)間少于1個小時(shi)能(neng)接受;
3)如果換電(dian)池,必(bi)須電(dian)池是(shi)自己專用(yong),是(shi)可以接受(shou)。
三、鋰(li)離子動力電池(chi)組的充電模(mo)式
下面(mian)是充(chong)電(dian)(dian)曲線,即充(chong)電(dian)(dian)模式采用“限流、限壓”兩階(jie)段充(chong)電(dian)(dian)模式。
1)限流過程:
這(zhe)一(yi)階段的(de)(de)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)叫“限流(liu)”充(chong)(chong)電(dian),充(chong)(chong)電(dian)電(dian)流(liu)保持在限流(liu)值。隨著充(chong)(chong)電(dian)的(de)(de)延(yan)續,電(dian)池(chi)電(dian)動勢(shi)不斷上(shang)升,電(dian)池(chi)的(de)(de)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)壓(ya)也不斷上(shang)升。當電(dian)池(chi)電(dian)壓(ya)上(shang)升到允許的(de)(de)最(zui)(zui)高(gao)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)電(dian)壓(ya)時,保持恒壓(ya)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)。廠(chang)家建議(yi):一(yi)般采用最(zui)(zui)佳充(chong)(chong)電(dian)倍率(鋰離子電(dian)池(chi)為0.3CA)進行限流(liu)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)。
2)限(xian)壓過程:
在這一階(jie)段,由(you)于電(dian)(dian)池電(dian)(dian)動(dong)勢還(huan)在不(bu)斷(duan)上升,而充(chong)電(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)又保(bao)持不(bu)變,所以電(dian)(dian)池的充(chong)電(dian)(dian)流呈(cheng)雙(shuang)曲線趨(qu)勢不(bu)斷(duan)下降,一直下降到(dao)零。這一階(jie)段的充(chong)電(dian)(dian)叫恒(heng)“恒(heng)壓(ya)(ya)”充(chong)電(dian)(dian),這一階(jie)段的充(chong)電(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya):U=E+IR=恒(heng)壓(ya)(ya)值。
(實際做法:當充(chong)電電流減(jian)小到(dao)0.015CA時就可停止充(chong)電。)
三(san)、對離子動(dong)力電池組充電,實際是一個動(dong)態的過程
充(chong)電系統必須具有自動(dong)調節充(chong)電參數、自動(dong)控(kong)制和自動(dong)保(bao)護功能:
1)自動調節(jie)充電參數
a)例(li)如,在充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)時,尤其在恒(heng)壓(ya)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)階段,如果電(dian)(dian)池組中有(you)某(mou)一(yi)個單(dan)體電(dian)(dian)池的(de)(de)(de)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)超過(guo)(guo)允(yun)許的(de)(de)(de)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(根據不同鋰電(dian)(dian)池的(de)(de)(de)特性一(yi)般設(she)定為3.9V~4.3V之間(jian))時,充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)系(xi)(xi)統(tong)應(ying)會根據電(dian)(dian)池管理(li)系(xi)(xi)統(tong)(BMS)輸出的(de)(de)(de)信(xin)號(hao),自動減(jian)小(xiao)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)和電(dian)(dian)流,使該電(dian)(dian)池的(de)(de)(de)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)不超過(guo)(guo)允(yun)許的(de)(de)(de)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)壓(ya),防止(zhi)該電(dian)(dian)池過(guo)(guo)壓(ya)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)。
b)再(zai)如,在充電(dian)(dian)開(kai)始時,經電(dian)(dian)池管理(li)系統(tong)(BMS)監測到有某一(yi)個單體(ti)電(dian)(dian)池的電(dian)(dian)壓過低,充電(dian)(dian)系統(tong)應能(neng)自動(dong)改小初始充電(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)流,待電(dian)(dian)池的電(dian)(dian)壓正(zheng)常后,再(zai)轉入正(zheng)常充電(dian)(dian)。
所以,在(zai)充電(dian)過(guo)程中,充電(dian)系(xi)統必須(xu)能根據電(dian)池組的狀態、電(dian)池管理系(xi)統(BMS)輸出的信息和(he)整車監控輸出的信息,自動(dong)調節充電(dian)參數和(he)自動(dong)控制充電(dian)。
2)自動控(kong)制和自動保護功能(neng)
在充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)過程中,電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)組(zu)和電(dian)(dian)(dian)動車發(fa)生任何(he)不正常(chang)情況(kuang)時,如電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)組(zu)短路、斷路、高溫、起火和有電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)損壞(huai)時,充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)系統應能迅速(su)切斷電(dian)(dian)(dian)源,停止充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)。
3)與整車CAN總(zong)線(xian)通信
在(zai)充電過程中,充電系統的信息可與整車CAN總線通信。

上(shang)海(hai)施能(neng)電器設備有限公司始(shi)建于1984年,上海市高新技術企業,中國工業車輛優秀配套供應商,上海電器行業名優產品,主要生產工頻系列充電機,高頻系列充電機,鋰電池充電機,系列放電機,系列充放電機等電器產品。


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