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如何提升充電便捷性

2019/2/28 9:07:13??????點擊:
電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動汽車動力源于(yu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi),目前使(shi)用的(de)(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)都是二次電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi),即可充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)。充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)的(de)(de)(de)壽命(ming)指標是充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)次數。通俗(su)理解,充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)隨時(shi)間延長(chang),它會(hui)衰減(jian)的(de)(de)(de)。如何防(fang)止電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)衰減(jian)過快,同(tong)時(shi)又要滿足大眾對充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)便捷性的(de)(de)(de)要求,是大家(jia)比較關心的(de)(de)(de)。下面對電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動汽車充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機理探討及(ji)不同(tong)方式難點分析進(jin)行分析,供使(shi)用者參考。
一、目前推(tui)廣應用的(de)難點是一次(ci)持續里程短、充電時間長
1)一次(ci)持續(xu)里(li)程短。目前(qian)電(dian)動(dong)汽(qi)車(che)(che)一次(ci)持續(xu)里(li)程比較(jiao)合(he)理(li)的(de)在200公里(li)到300公里(li)之間。但與(yu)燃油車(che)(che)相比還差一半以上。商家一而再(zai)三打廣(guang)告,說(shuo)一次(ci)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)能跑(pao)500公里(li)、800公里(li),是在誤導(dao)了消費者。實際情況是,電(dian)動(dong)汽(qi)車(che)(che)一次(ci)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)能跑(pao)多少(shao)公里(li),與(yu)車(che)(che)載電(dian)池(chi)多少(shao)是成線性有(you)關的(de)。要跑(pao)得(de)越遠,車(che)(che)載電(dian)池(chi)量必須裝(zhuang)越多。
車(che)載電(dian)池(chi)量在汽(qi)(qi)車(che)工程(cheng)(cheng)設(she)計值上(shang)(shang),必須要考量其技術上(shang)(shang)可(ke)(ke)(ke)行性(xing)(xing),經濟性(xing)(xing)的(de)合(he)理(li)性(xing)(xing)。與(yu)燃料車(che)的(de)油(you)箱容積(ji)大(da)小(xiao)設(she)計是(shi)一樣(yang),不(bu)是(shi)可(ke)(ke)(ke)以(yi)任意(yi)地(di)無限大(da)的(de)。目前電(dian)動(dong)汽(qi)(qi)車(che)的(de)一次里程(cheng)(cheng)不(bu)能(neng)(neng)做到(dao)燃油(you)車(che)一樣(yang)的(de)長(chang),主要理(li)由是(shi)由于(yu)動(dong)力(li)電(dian)池(chi)的(de)比(bi)(bi)能(neng)(neng)量與(yu)汽(qi)(qi)柴(chai)油(you)相相比(bi)(bi),還差100多倍。我們每天能(neng)(neng)聽(ting)到(dao)動(dong)力(li)電(dian)池(chi)技術在進步(bu),但(dan)是(shi)從科學上(shang)(shang)講,在短(duan)期內,動(dong)力(li)電(dian)池(chi)新能(neng)(neng)源汽(qi)(qi)車(che)一次里程(cheng)(cheng)上(shang)(shang)沒有(you)可(ke)(ke)(ke)能(neng)(neng)趕上(shang)(shang)燃油(you)汽(qi)(qi)車(che)的(de)。

2)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)時間長達6-8個小(xiao)時,是(shi)(shi)比較科學的(de)。也就是(shi)(shi)說,實(shi)際(ji)上電(dian)(dian)動汽(qi)車(che)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)的(de)便(bian)捷性是(shi)(shi)大家不能接(jie)受(shou)的(de)。一是(shi)(shi)用(yong)家里220V交流電(dian)(dian)來充(chong)電(dian)(dian),充(chong)電(dian)(dian)時間要(yao)(yao)6-8小(xiao)時;二是(shi)(shi)到充(chong)電(dian)(dian)站用(yong)直(zhi)流充(chong)電(dian)(dian),除(chu)了排隊(dui)外,充(chong)電(dian)(dian)過程要(yao)(yao)的(de)時間也必須要(yao)(yao)在(zai)30分(fen)鐘(zhong)以上;三是(shi)(shi)買換(huan)電(dian)(dian)池的(de)車(che)吧,基本上沒有賣(mai)的(de)。

二、提(ti)高充(chong)電(dian)方便性基本途徑
1)如(ru)(ru)果(guo)能用民用交流(liu)電充電,如(ru)(ru)果(guo)充電時間少于(yu)要3小(xiao)時能接(jie)受;
2)如果到(dao)充(chong)電(dian)站用直流充(chong)電(dian),充(chong)電(dian)時(shi)間少于(yu)1個小時(shi)能接受(shou);
3)如果換(huan)電池,必須(xu)電池是自己專(zhuan)用,是可(ke)以接受。
三、鋰離子動力電池組的充電模式(shi)
下面是充(chong)電曲(qu)線,即充(chong)電模(mo)式采用“限流、限壓(ya)”兩階段充(chong)電模(mo)式。
1)限(xian)流(liu)過程(cheng):
這一階段的充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)叫“限(xian)流”充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流保持在限(xian)流值。隨著(zhu)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)的延續,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)勢不斷上升(sheng),電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)的充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓也不斷上升(sheng)。當電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓上升(sheng)到允許的最高充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓時(shi),保持恒壓充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。廠家(jia)建(jian)議:一般采(cai)用最佳充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)倍率(lv)(鋰(li)離子電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)為(wei)0.3CA)進行限(xian)流充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。
2)限壓過程:
在這(zhe)一階段(duan),由于電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動勢還在不(bu)斷上升,而充電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)又保持(chi)不(bu)變,所以電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池的充電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)呈雙曲(qu)線趨勢不(bu)斷下降(jiang),一直下降(jiang)到零。這(zhe)一階段(duan)的充電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)叫(jiao)恒(heng)“恒(heng)壓(ya)”充電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),這(zhe)一階段(duan)的充電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya):U=E+IR=恒(heng)壓(ya)值。
(實(shi)際(ji)做法:當(dang)充電電流減小到0.015CA時就可(ke)停止(zhi)充電。)
三、對離子(zi)動(dong)力電池組(zu)充電,實際是(shi)一個動(dong)態的(de)過程
充(chong)電(dian)系統必(bi)須具有(you)自(zi)(zi)動(dong)調(diao)節充(chong)電(dian)參數、自(zi)(zi)動(dong)控制和自(zi)(zi)動(dong)保護功(gong)能:
1)自動調節充電參數
a)例如(ru),在充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)時,尤其在恒壓充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)階(jie)段(duan),如(ru)果電(dian)(dian)池(chi)組(zu)中有某一(yi)(yi)個單體電(dian)(dian)池(chi)的(de)(de)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)壓超過允許的(de)(de)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)壓(根(gen)據(ju)不(bu)同鋰電(dian)(dian)池(chi)的(de)(de)特(te)性一(yi)(yi)般設定(ding)為3.9V~4.3V之間)時,充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)系(xi)(xi)統(tong)應會根(gen)據(ju)電(dian)(dian)池(chi)管理(li)系(xi)(xi)統(tong)(BMS)輸出的(de)(de)信號(hao),自動(dong)減小充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)壓和電(dian)(dian)流,使(shi)該(gai)(gai)電(dian)(dian)池(chi)的(de)(de)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)壓不(bu)超過允許的(de)(de)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)壓,防止該(gai)(gai)電(dian)(dian)池(chi)過壓充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)。
b)再(zai)如,在充電(dian)(dian)開始時,經(jing)電(dian)(dian)池管理(li)系(xi)統(tong)(BMS)監(jian)測(ce)到有某一(yi)個(ge)單體電(dian)(dian)池的電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)過(guo)低,充電(dian)(dian)系(xi)統(tong)應能(neng)自(zi)動(dong)改小(xiao)初始充電(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)流,待電(dian)(dian)池的電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)正常后,再(zai)轉入正常充電(dian)(dian)。
所(suo)以,在充(chong)電(dian)(dian)過(guo)程中,充(chong)電(dian)(dian)系統必須能根據(ju)電(dian)(dian)池組(zu)的(de)狀態、電(dian)(dian)池管理系統(BMS)輸(shu)出(chu)的(de)信息和(he)整車監控輸(shu)出(chu)的(de)信息,自(zi)動(dong)(dong)調節充(chong)電(dian)(dian)參數和(he)自(zi)動(dong)(dong)控制(zhi)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)。
2)自動(dong)控制(zhi)和(he)自動(dong)保(bao)護功能
在充(chong)電過程(cheng)中(zhong),電池(chi)組(zu)和電動車發(fa)生任(ren)何(he)不正常(chang)情況時,如(ru)電池(chi)組(zu)短路(lu)、斷路(lu)、高溫、起(qi)火(huo)和有電池(chi)損壞時,充(chong)電系統應能(neng)迅速切斷電源,停(ting)止充(chong)電。
3)與整車CAN總線通信
在充電過程(cheng)中,充電系統的信息(xi)可與整車CAN總(zong)線通信。

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