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關于變電站直流屏技術的分析研究

2019/6/10 14:30:31??????點擊:
直(zhi)(zhi)流屏(ping)(ping)是變(bian)電(dian)(dian)站正常(chang)運行的重要(yao)組成,其能(neng)(neng)夠持續(xu)向變(bian)電(dian)(dian)站輸送穩定(ding)的直(zhi)(zhi)流電(dian)(dian)源,滿足了電(dian)(dian)力(li)設備操作運行的用(yong)電(dian)(dian)需(xu)求。從(cong)實(shi)際(ji)運用(yong)情(qing)況來說,變(bian)電(dian)(dian)站蓄電(dian)(dian)池直(zhi)(zhi)流屏(ping)(ping)在使(shi)用(yong)壽命及電(dian)(dian)能(neng)(neng)供應方面(mian)的性(xing)能(neng)(neng)難(nan)以達到標準要(yao)求,制(zhi)約了直(zhi)(zhi)流電(dian)(dian)源操作系統性(xing)能(neng)(neng)的發(fa)揮(hui)。研究發(fa)現采用(yong)超(chao)級電(dian)(dian)容直(zhi)(zhi)流屏(ping)(ping)可有效解決(jue)直(zhi)(zhi)流電(dian)(dian)源供應難(nan)題(ti),經過(guo)改(gai)進后的超(chao)級電(dian)(dian)容直(zhi)(zhi)流屏(ping)(ping)在性(xing)能(neng)(neng)、壽命、穩定(ding)等方面(mian)都(dou)有了很大的改(gai)善,其與蓄電(dian)(dian)池直(zhi)(zhi)流屏(ping)(ping)相比(bi)存在明顯的優勢。
直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)源操(cao)(cao)作(zuo)系統簡稱“直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)屏”,在(zai)變(bian)(bian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)站(zhan)中向各種電(dian)(dian)(dian)力(li)(li)設備提(ti)供穩(wen)定的(de)直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)源,也(ye)(ye)是現代(dai)變(bian)(bian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)站(zhan)核心的(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)力(li)(li)操(cao)(cao)作(zuo)電(dian)(dian)(dian)源。直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)屏技術不僅保護了電(dian)(dian)(dian)力(li)(li)系統的(de)正常運(yun)行,對(dui)于(yu)其他元件的(de)穩(wen)定操(cao)(cao)控也(ye)(ye)起到(dao)很好的(de)保護作(zuo)用。對(dui)變(bian)(bian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)站(zhan)直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)屏存在(zai)的(de)問(wen)題進行深入分析,可(ke)以保證(zheng)持續(xu)性的(de)直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)源供應,為電(dian)(dian)(dian)力(li)(li)設備及相關模塊(kuai)的(de)正常操(cao)(cao)控創(chuang)造(zao)有利的(de)條件。電(dian)(dian)(dian)力(li)(li)行業積極引入直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)屏技術可(ke)加快變(bian)(bian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)站(zhan)的(de)自動化(hua)、智能化(hua)發(fa)展(zhan),提(ti)高變(bian)(bian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)站(zhan)設備運(yun)行的(de)整(zheng)體效率。
一、當前變電站(zhan)直流屏存在的問題
國內變電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)站采(cai)用(yong)(yong)的直(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)屏(ping)由充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)柜、充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)模(mo)塊、監控(kong)模(mo)塊、電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)組、降壓硅(gui)鏈等結構(gou)組成,每一個模(mo)塊都(dou)對直(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)供應發(fa)揮重要的作用(yong)(yong)。從行(xing)業發(fa)展趨(qu)勢分析直(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)屏(ping),其屬于(yu)數字(zi)化調(diao)(diao)控(kong)模(mo)式下運行(xing)的直(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)系統(tong),對變電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)站直(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)供應具有調(diao)(diao)控(kong)、保護、管(guan)理、監測等多方面作用(yong)(yong)。目前,變電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)站采(cai)用(yong)(yong)直(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)屏(ping)技(ji)術具備了(le)遠(yuan)程監測、調(diao)(diao)控(kong)等高(gao)級(ji)功能,方便了(le)值班人(ren)員對電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)力系統(tong)運行(xing)的調(diao)(diao)控(kong)。但(dan)直(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)屏(ping)存在(zai)的一些問題也(ye)應該引起技(ji)術人(ren)員的關注,鎘鎳(nie)蓄電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)、密封(feng)鉛(qian)酸蓄電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)是常用(yong)(yong)的直(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)屏(ping),其主要問題如下:
(一)鎘鎳蓄電池直流(liu)屏
1.性(xing)能(neng)(neng)問題。變(bian)電(dian)站(zhan)通過(guo)直流母線輸出電(dian)能(neng)(neng)需要使(shi)用(yong)大批蓄(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)電(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)模(mo)塊,以此(ci)來維持正(zheng)常的(de)(de)直流電(dian)源操控。如:一般情況下,大型變(bian)電(dian)站(zhan)直流母線輸出220V,需使(shi)用(yong)200只左右的(de)(de)蓄(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)電(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)組(zu)合模(mo)塊。但鎘(ge)鎳蓄(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)電(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)在生產(chan)處(chu)理期間,廠家無法保證每只蓄(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)電(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)充(chong)電(dian)、放電(dian)性(xing)能(neng)(neng)完(wan)全一致(zhi),200只蓄(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)電(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)組(zu)合起來會產(chan)生明顯的(de)(de)特(te)性(xing)差(cha)異。鎘(ge)鎳蓄(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)電(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)直流屏在供應直流電(dian)源后所(suo)連接的(de)(de)充(chong)電(dian)電(dian)源一致(zhi),并且負荷放電(dian)的(de)(de)對(dui)象相同。這(zhe)種特(te)點導致(zhi)局部(bu)鎘(ge)鎳蓄(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)電(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)性(xing)能(neng)(neng)減弱(ruo),降低(di)了整個(ge)蓄(xu)(xu)(xu)(xu)電(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)組(zu)合模(mo)塊的(de)(de)功能(neng)(neng)。
2.壽(shou)(shou)命(ming)問題。由于鎘(ge)鎳(nie)蓄電(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)組合材料(liao)的(de)(de)缺(que)陷,直流(liu)屏運(yun)行時本質上處于“浮充狀態”,此時鎘(ge)鎳(nie)蓄電(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)直流(liu)屏的(de)(de)使(shi)用壽(shou)(shou)命(ming)取(qu)決于充電(dian)(dian)機。按(an)照行業標準里的(de)(de)規定,廠家(jia)對(dui)鎘(ge)鎳(nie)蓄電(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)保(bao)證命(ming)在10年以(yi)上,而具體使(shi)用的(de)(de)記錄情況僅(jin)有5年左右的(de)(de)時間。蓄電(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)直流(liu)屏壽(shou)(shou)命(ming)縮(suo)短的(de)(de)原(yuan)因是由94于俯沖電(dian)(dian)流(liu)超標會造(zao)成電(dian)(dian)解液中的(de)(de)水電(dian)(dian)解成氫、氧(yang),這(zhe)是造(zao)成蓄電(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)炸的(de)(de)根(gen)本原(yuan)因,若采用鎘(ge)鎳(nie)蓄電(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)直流(liu)屏時未做(zuo)特(te)殊(shu)處理,則很(hen)容易引起意(yi)外事故(gu)。因此,直流(liu)屏的(de)(de)使(shi)用壽(shou)(shou)命(ming)長短會受(shou)到其他方面(mian)因素的(de)(de)限制。
3.氧(yang)化(hua)(hua)問題。變(bian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)廠鎘鎳蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池直(zhi)流(liu)屏使用期間也會(hui)出(chu)現氧(yang)化(hua)(hua)還原(yuan)反(fan)應(ying)(ying)(ying),使鎘鎳材料發(fa)生化(hua)(hua)學(xue)反(fan)應(ying)(ying)(ying)生成(cheng)氧(yang)化(hua)(hua)鎘,造成(cheng)極板的有效面積(ji)不斷減(jian)小。為了避(bi)免氧(yang)化(hua)(hua)還原(yuan)反(fan)應(ying)(ying)(ying)的發(fa)生,變(bian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)站(zhan)工作人員會(hui)定期對(dui)蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池進(jin)行(xing)“活(huo)化(hua)(hua)試(shi)驗”分析。在活(huo)化(hua)(hua)試(shi)驗里需對(dui)蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池進(jin)行(xing)充(chong)放電(dian)(dian)(dian)處(chu)理,這一階段(duan)的操作會(hui)發(fa)生極性反(fan)轉而導致蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池報廢。另外,氧(yang)化(hua)(hua)還原(yuan)反(fan)應(ying)(ying)(ying)在破壞(huai)鎘鎳直(zhi)流(liu)屏性能的同(tong)時,對(dui)變(bian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)站(zhan)的穩定運行(xing)也會(hui)埋(mai)下安(an)(an)全隱(yin)患,如:若把蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池完全安(an)(an)裝于柜內(nei),很容易引起燒毀、爆炸等安(an)(an)全事故。
(二(er))密封鉛酸蓄電池直流屏
在(zai)科學技術(shu)的(de)(de)推動下,國內變電(dian)站(zhan)(zhan)直(zhi)流屏技術(shu)不斷發展(zhan),許多新的(de)(de)蓄(xu)(xu)電(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)產品(pin)也(ye)在(zai)變電(dian)站(zhan)(zhan)中得到(dao)了普遍運用。基于(yu)(yu)(yu)鎘鎳(nie)蓄(xu)(xu)電(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)直(zhi)流屏存在(zai)的(de)(de)不足,企業(ye)開始(shi)采用密(mi)封鉛(qian)酸蓄(xu)(xu)電(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi),簡稱“閥控(kong)蓄(xu)(xu)電(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)”。這種產品(pin)在(zai)質量、性能(neng)、價格、維護(hu)(hu)(hu)等(deng)方面均優于(yu)(yu)(yu)鎘鎳(nie)蓄(xu)(xu)電(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)。如:閥控(kong)蓄(xu)(xu)電(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)無需進行(xing)(xing)過多的(de)(de)維護(hu)(hu)(hu)或加水處理,為(wei)變電(dian)站(zhan)(zhan)操(cao)作(zuo)人員提供了很(hen)大的(de)(de)方便。但該直(zhi)流屏處于(yu)(yu)(yu)“全密(mi)封”狀態也(ye)引起(qi)了諸多問題,尤其是在(zai)電(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)觀測、檢查(cha)等(deng)操(cao)作(zuo)時(shi),維護(hu)(hu)(hu)人員難以及時(shi)更新裝置。另外,由于(yu)(yu)(yu)國內閥控(kong)蓄(xu)(xu)電(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)技術(shu)相對落后(hou),產品(pin)運用于(yu)(yu)(yu)變電(dian)站(zhan)(zhan)時(shi)壽命無保障,并且對于(yu)(yu)(yu)閥控(kong)蓄(xu)(xu)電(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)直(zhi)流屏的(de)(de)運行(xing)(xing)條件十分嚴格,給(gei)變電(dian)站(zhan)(zhan)的(de)(de)正常生產造成了很(hen)大的(de)(de)困難。
二(er)、影(ying)響閾控(kong)蓄電池壽命的因素
使用壽命是制約閥控蓄電池推廣的重要因
素(su)(su)(su),各大(da)、中、小型變電(dian)(dian)站(zhan)采用(yong)這種電(dian)(dian)源裝置均會(hui)考慮使(shi)用(yong)壽命的年(nian)限,以控制(zhi)變電(dian)(dian)站(zhan)的運行成本。經試驗數據(ju)分析(xi),對(dui)閥控蓄電(dian)(dian)池使(shi)用(yong)壽命造成影響的因素(su)(su)(su)集中在(zai)溫度因素(su)(su)(su)、放(fang)電(dian)(dian)因素(su)(su)(su)、失水因素(su)(su)(su)、腐蝕(shi)因素(su)(su)(su),等等。
(一)溫度因素
盡管閥控蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池運(yun)用于變電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)站(zhan)還(huan)存在(zai)明顯(xian)的(de)不足,但與鎘鎳蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池相比已經有了很大(da)的(de)改進(jin),對變電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)站(zhan)直流(liu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源操作系統的(de)運(yun)行(xing)(xing)創造了更好的(de)條件(jian)。閥控蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池壽命(ming)對溫(wen)度十(shi)分(fen)敏感,生產(chan)廠家要求電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池運(yun)行(xing)(xing)環(huan)境溫(wen)為15℃~25℃,當(dang)環(huan)境溫(wen)度超過25℃后,每升高10℃電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池壽命(ming)就要縮短一(yi)半(ban)。
(二)放(fang)電因素
蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)被過度放(fang)(fang)電(dian)(dian)(dian)是(shi)影響蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)使(shi)用壽命的(de)另一重要因素。當(dang)蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)被過度放(fang)(fang)電(dian)(dian)(dian)到輸(shu)出(chu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)壓為零(ling)時,會導(dao)致電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)內(nei)部有大(da)(da)量(liang)的(de)硫(liu)(liu)(liu)酸(suan)鉛被吸付到電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)的(de)陰極表面(mian),形成(cheng)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)陰極的(de)硫(liu)(liu)(liu)酸(suan)鹽化。在陰極板上形成(cheng)的(de)硫(liu)(liu)(liu)酸(suan)鹽越多,電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)的(de)內(nei)阻(zu)越大(da)(da),閥(fa)控蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)的(de)使(shi)用壽命會大(da)(da)大(da)(da)減短。
(三(san))腐蝕因素(su)
板(ban)柵(zha)腐蝕(shi)是(shi)影(ying)響蓄電(dian)(dian)池使(shi)用壽命的重(zhong)要原因(yin)。在(zai)開(kai)路狀態(tai)下,鉛合金與活性(xing)二氧化鉛直接接觸,而(er)且(qie)共同浸在(zai)硫酸溶液(ye)中。在(zai)過充電(dian)(dian)狀態(tai)下,正極(ji)由于(yu)析(xi)氧反應,水被消(xiao)耗,H增加,從(cong)而(er)導(dao)致(zhi)正極(ji)附近酸度增高。電(dian)(dian)池的柵(zha)板(ban)就(jiu)會變薄,容量降低,會縮短使(shi)用壽命。
(四)浮充(chong)因素
變電(dian)站使(shi)用的(de)(de)蓄(xu)電(dian)池大多數都(dou)處(chu)于(yu)長期的(de)(de)浮充電(dian)狀態(tai)下,這樣會造成蓄(xu)電(dian)池的(de)(de)陽極極板(ban)鈍化,使(shi)蓄(xu)電(dian)池內阻急劇增大,使(shi)蓄(xu)電(dian)池的(de)(de)實際容(rong)量(liang)(Ah)遠遠低于(yu)其(qi)標準容(rong)量(liang),從而導致蓄(xu)電(dian)池所(suo)能提供的(de)(de)實際后備供電(dian)時間大大縮(suo)短(duan),減(jian)少(shao)其(qi)使(shi)用壽命(ming)。
(五)失水因素
蓄電(dian)(dian)池(chi)失水(shui)也是影響其使用壽命的因素之一,蓄電(dian)(dian)池(chi)失水(shui)會(hui)導(dao)致(zhi)電(dian)(dian)解液(ye)比重(zhong)增加,電(dian)(dian)池(chi)柵板的腐(fu)蝕(shi),使蓄電(dian)(dian)池(chi)的活(huo)性物質減少,從而使蓄電(dian)(dian)池(chi)的容量(liang)降(jiang)低而導(dao)致(zhi)其使用壽命減少。當失水(shui)5.5%時,容量(liang)降(jiang)到(dao)75%;失水(shui)達(da)到(dao)25%時,容量(liang)基(ji)本消失。
三、超級電容用于直流屏(ping)的有(you)關試(shi)驗
為(wei)了證明超級電容用于(yu)變電站直流屏(ping)中的優(you)點(dian),列舉(ju)了幾個(ge)常(chang)見的試(shi)驗案例,根(gen)據試(shi)驗結(jie)果分析(xi)超級電容直流屏(ping)技術(shu)的綜合性能特點(dian)。
(一)用(yong)超級電容(rong)對斷路器合閘的(de)試(shi)驗(yan)
超級電(dian)(dian)容(rong)標稱容(rong)量0.82F,耐壓(ya)(ya)280V,用超級電(dian)(dian)容(rong)對斷路器合(he)閘(zha)(zha)(zha)的(de)試驗。試驗方(fang)法:斷開615柜合(he)閘(zha)(zha)(zha)電(dian)(dian)源;將已充電(dian)(dian)的(de)超級電(dian)(dian)容(rong)兩出線端(duan)并(bing)接在合(he)閘(zha)(zha)(zha)接觸器觸頭上(shang);模擬正常(chang)方(fang)式合(he)閘(zha)(zha)(zha),按(an)下(xia)合(he)閘(zha)(zha)(zha)接鈕,記錄合(he)閘(zha)(zha)(zha)次(ci)(ci)(ci)數和電(dian)(dian)容(rong)端(duan)電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)。共合(he)閘(zha)(zha)(zha)15次(ci)(ci)(ci),每次(ci)(ci)(ci)都合(he)閘(zha)(zha)(zha)成功。結(jie)果:電(dian)(dian)容(rong)充電(dian)(dian)至(zhi)10%額定電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)95時,可對CD-Ⅱ型(xing)電(dian)(dian)磁機構(gou)可靠(kao)合(he)閘(zha)(zha)(zha)大于8次(ci)(ci)(ci),每次(ci)(ci)(ci)合(he)閘(zha)(zha)(zha)使(shi)電(dian)(dian)容(rong)端(duan)電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)下(xia)降5V。
(二)超級(ji)電容充電時間(jian)測試
超級電(dian)(dian)容(rong)的初充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian),如(ru)不加限流(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)阻(zu),相當于發(fa)生短路。生產廠(chang)家推薦使用1000W碘(dian)鎢(wu)(wu)燈作限流(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)阻(zu),其冷態電(dian)(dian)阻(zu)較熱(re)態電(dian)(dian)阻(zu)小(xiao)近10倍,符合(he)電(dian)(dian)容(rong)電(dian)(dian)壓上升后(hou)宜減(jian)小(xiao)限流(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)阻(zu)的要求。以(yi)下試驗數(shu)據均是串入(ru)1000W碘(dian)鎢(wu)(wu)燈實(shi)測的數(shu)據。結果(guo):不同的充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)源對充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)速度有影(ying)響(xiang),但不管什么電(dian)(dian)源電(dian)(dian)容(rong)由(you)零伏充(chong)(chong)至(zhi)額定(ding)電(dian)(dian)壓時僅需3分鐘(zhong)。以(yi)后(hou),長期浮(fu)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)在0~10mA變化。
(三)超級電容自(zi)放電測試(shi)
將超級電(dian)(dian)(dian)容充(chong)至242V后,與負(fu)載(zai)完全脫離,隔(ge)日(ri)同一時間測量電(dian)(dian)(dian)容端(duan)電(dian)(dian)(dian)壓。結(jie)果(guo):端(duan)電(dian)(dian)(dian)壓下降速(su)度與是(shi)否經(jing)過浮(fu)(fu)充(chong)有關(guan),未經(jing)浮(fu)(fu)充(chong)開始幾個小(xiao)時達(da)2~3V/h,即(ji)每(mei)小(xiao)時下降2~3V,經(jing)過浮(fu)(fu)充(chong)半小(xiao)時以后,自放電(dian)(dian)(dian)速(su)度明顯變緩,可(ke)能是(shi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)容內部(bu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)荷(he)來不及分布均勻(yun)有關(guan)。在正常運(yun)用(yong)時,超級電(dian)(dian)(dian)容處在長期浮(fu)(fu)充(chong)狀態,完全斷開負(fu)載(zai)后可(ke)維持有效電(dian)(dian)(dian)壓達(da)3天(72小(xiao)時)。
四、超(chao)級(ji)電容直(zhi)流屏(ping)與蓄電池(chi)直(zhi)流屏(ping)的性能對比
根據超級電(dian)容運(yun)用于直(zhi)流(liu)(liu)(liu)屏的(de)(de)(de)試驗結果分析,其不僅擺脫了(le)(le)傳統蓄(xu)電(dian)池直(zhi)流(liu)(liu)(liu)屏存在(zai)的(de)(de)(de)不足,也顯著提升了(le)(le)變電(dian)站(zhan)電(dian)力系統運(yun)行(xing)(xing)的(de)(de)(de)效(xiao)率,為操(cao)作人員(yuan)的(de)(de)(de)系統控制與改造(zao)提供了(le)(le)足夠的(de)(de)(de)直(zhi)流(liu)(liu)(liu)電(dian)源。為了(le)(le)驗證超級電(dian)容直(zhi)流(liu)(liu)(liu)屏的(de)(de)(de)諸多(duo)優勢,本文以使用性能為重點,從故障、壽(shou)命(ming)、維護等方面(mian),對超級電(dian)容直(zhi)流(liu)(liu)(liu)屏與蓄(xu)電(dian)池直(zhi)流(liu)(liu)(liu)屏進行(xing)(xing)綜合(he)對比(bi)。
(一(yi))故障方面對比
變(bian)電(dian)站不管采用(yong)哪一類蓄(xu)電(dian)池(chi),其(qi)在使用(yong)時都(dou)需要配備(bei)相應的(de)(de)(de)放(fang)(fang)電(dian)裝(zhuang)(zhuang)置,這(zhe)是(shi)保證蓄(xu)電(dian)池(chi)持續供應直(zhi)流電(dian)源的(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)要條件。參照試驗結(jie)果判斷,傳統蓄(xu)電(dian)池(chi)直(zhi)流屏采用(yong)的(de)(de)(de)放(fang)(fang)電(dian)裝(zhuang)(zhuang)置的(de)(de)(de)故障(zhang)發生(sheng)率明顯(xian)高于(yu)超級電(dian)容(rong)直(zhi)流屏,不利于(yu)變(bian)電(dian)站日常操作的(de)(de)(de)穩定運行(xing)。而超級電(dian)容(rong)放(fang)(fang)電(dian)裝(zhuang)(zhuang)置在結(jie)構方(fang)面更為(wei)簡化,對其(qi)進行(xing)改造或放(fang)(fang)電(dian)更加便捷(jie)。
(二)壽命方面對比
當(dang)蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)池使用(yong)(yong)結束后需(xu)要(yao)進行(xing)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)才能正常使用(yong)(yong),長期(qi)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)會(hui)導致(zhi)蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)池的使用(yong)(yong)壽(shou)(shou)命減短(duan),一般要(yao)短(duan)于標準使用(yong)(yong)壽(shou)(shou)命的5~10年時間(jian),限制了(le)蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)池直(zhi)流屏作用(yong)(yong)的穩定(ding)發揮。而超級電(dian)(dian)容直(zhi)流屏的使用(yong)(yong)壽(shou)(shou)命更長,這(zhe)是由于其不存在過充(chong)電(dian)(dian)、過放電(dian)(dian)問題,在生產期(qi)間(jian)限定(ding)最高充(chong)電(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)壓即(ji)可(ke)滿足維(wei)護需(xu)要(yao),有效避免了(le)超級電(dian)(dian)容使用(yong)(yong)壽(shou)(shou)命減短(duan)。
(三)維護方面對比(bi)
從直(zhi)流(liu)屏維護角度來看,變(bian)(bian)電(dian)(dian)站的(de)(de)日常維護工(gong)作量較大,不(bu)僅要定(ding)期對蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)池(chi)進(jin)行檢(jian)測、更新(xin),還要對電(dian)(dian)池(chi)內部的(de)(de)線路(lu)連接(jie)綜合監測,給(gei)工(gong)作人員造成了很大的(de)(de)難度。但(dan)超(chao)級(ji)(ji)電(dian)(dian)容直(zhi)流(liu)屏用于變(bian)(bian)電(dian)(dian)站無需(xu)過多的(de)(de)維護,在安(an)裝初(chu)期對直(zhi)流(liu)屏裝置(zhi)全面檢(jian)測達(da)標后(hou)(hou)即(ji)可(ke)長期使用。從性能(neng)(neng)恢復來說,蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)池(chi)放電(dian)(dian)后(hou)(hou)要經過幾個小(xiao)時的(de)(de)恢復才能(neng)(neng)正常供電(dian)(dian),超(chao)級(ji)(ji)電(dian)(dian)容僅需(xu)3~5分鐘即(ji)可(ke)復原電(dian)(dian)能(neng)(neng)。保持了變(bian)(bian)電(dian)(dian)站的(de)(de)正常供電(dian)(dian)。
五、結論
直流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)電(dian)源操作(zuo)系統(tong)是變電(dian)站正常運行(xing)的(de)(de)基本保證,其能夠及(ji)時將電(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)輸送(song)到(dao)各個電(dian)力設備中供應(ying)使用。伴隨著(zhu)社會現(xian)代化(hua)發展步伐的(de)(de)加快,我國變電(dian)站建(jian)設面(mian)臨(lin)著(zhu)新的(de)(de)改革(ge)優化(hua),各種蓄(xu)電(dian)池直流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)屏(ping)逐漸被其他(ta)形(xing)式(shi)的(de)(de)裝置所取代,這對(dui)于(yu)變電(dian)站未來的(de)(de)革(ge)新發展大有(you)幫助(zhu)。超級電(dian)容直流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)屏(ping)是變電(dian)站直流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)屏(ping)的(de)(de)先(xian)進(jin)技術,其在性能、維護、壽命、故障(zhang)等方(fang)面(mian)都明顯優越于(yu)傳統(tong)的(de)(de)蓄(xu)電(dian)池直流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)屏(ping),在電(dian)力行(xing)業中應(ying)得到(dao)全面(mian)推廣使用。
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