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電力直流屏電池和充電系統的選擇

2019/6/10 14:32:13??????點擊:
電(dian)(dian)(dian)力直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)屏(ping)(ping)是(shi)(shi)高壓配電(dian)(dian)(dian)設備,是(shi)(shi)整個(ge)配電(dian)(dian)(dian)室的(de)(de)直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)系(xi)統,有時候也(ye)可以(yi)根據情況配合交(jiao)流(liu)(liu)屏(ping)(ping)使用(yong),組(zu)成(cheng)交(jiao)直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)供(gong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)系(xi)統。直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)屏(ping)(ping)主要應(ying)(ying)用(yong)于大型(xing)水力、火力發(fa)電(dian)(dian)(dian)廠,各類變電(dian)(dian)(dian)站和其它使用(yong)直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)設備的(de)(de)用(yong)戶,給(gei)信號(hao)設備、保(bao)護、自動裝(zhuang)置、事故照(zhao)明、應(ying)(ying)急(ji)電(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)及斷路器(qi)分、合閘操作(zuo)提供(gong)直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)的(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)設備。直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)系(xi)統是(shi)(shi)一(yi)個(ge)獨(du)立(li)的(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan),不受發(fa)電(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji)、廠用(yong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)及系(xi)統運行方式(shi)的(de)(de)影響。在(zai)外部交(jiao)流(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)中斷情況下(xia),蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池提供(gong)直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan),把儲蓄(xu)在(zai)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池內的(de)(de)多(duo)余電(dian)(dian)(dian)量用(yong)來給(gei)高壓柜合閘分閘、保(bao)護設備、應(ying)(ying)急(ji)照(zhao)明系(xi)統等供(gong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)。直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)屏(ping)(ping)的(de)(de)可靠(kao)性(xing)和安全性(xing)直(zhi)(zhi)接影響到電(dian)(dian)(dian)力系(xi)統供(gong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)的(de)(de)可靠(kao)性(xing)和安全性(xing)。因此,在(zai)直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)屏(ping)(ping)的(de)(de)選擇上因從以(yi)下(xia)幾個(ge)方面著手:
(1)蓄電(dian)池的選擇
不間斷(duan)供電(dian)(dian)設備,直(zhi)流蓄電(dian)(dian)池是(shi)核心部件。初(chu)期的直(zhi)流電(dian)(dian)源(yuan)系統(tong)大(da)多使(shi)用普通(tong)鉛酸電(dian)(dian)池,其過載能(neng)力低,容(rong)易產生酸腐(fu)蝕等問題。逐漸隨(sui)著(zhu)人們(men)對(dui)堿(jian)性(xing)(xing)鎘鎳電(dian)(dian)池的認識,以(yi)及和原鉛酸電(dian)(dian)池做比較(jiao),總結得(de)出堿(jian)性(xing)(xing)鎘鎳電(dian)(dian)池有以(yi)下優(you)點:
1、良(liang)好(hao)的機械強度,體(ti)積(ji)較小,能承(cheng)受強大(da)的沖擊和(he)振動,不易損(sun)壞。
2、壓(ya)降(jiang)小,自(zi)放電引起(qi)的能(neng)量損失(shi)小。
3、過(guo)放電能(neng)力強,不會(hui)因為過(guo)充引起內部短路
4、放電電壓平穩(wen),壽(shou)命(ming)長,若合(he)理使(shi)用(yong),可(ke)高達(da)3000多個使(shi)用(yong)周(zhou)期(qi)。
5、根據以上(shang)堿性(xing)鎘鎳電(dian)池的優勢,直流系統負載較(jiao)重、過載可(ke)(ke)能大(如(ru)作(zuo)為電(dian)磁操作(zuo)機構的操作(zuo)電(dian)源(yuan))、安裝地點環境良好、環境溫(wen)度(du)不(bu)高且具備較(jiao)強維護(hu)力量的情況下,就可(ke)(ke)選用堿性(xing)鎘鑷電(dian)池。反之,可(ke)(ke)選用免維護(hu)的鉛酸電(dian)池。
(2)充電(dian)系統的選擇
充電(dian)(dian)(dian)設備(bei)方(fang)面,目前使用(yong)較(jiao)(jiao)多(duo)的是可(ke)控(kong)(kong)(kong)硅相(xiang)控(kong)(kong)(kong)直(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)充電(dian)(dian)(dian)系(xi)統(tong)(tong),對(dui)(dui)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)的充電(dian)(dian)(dian)分為(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)主充與(yu)浮充兩(liang)個(ge)階段,充電(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)分大電(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)強充和涓流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)兩(liang)種(zhong)(zhong)方(fang)式(shi)。而(er)控(kong)(kong)(kong)制方(fang)式(shi)常見(jian)的有熱傳感器法(fa)、定時(shi)法(fa)、負(fu)序(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)斜率(lv)法(fa)、伏(fu)安法(fa)等(deng)。近年(nian)來眾多(duo)生(sheng)產(chan)廠(chang)家(jia)對(dui)(dui)此(ci)(ci)類(lei)直(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)系(xi)統(tong)(tong),主要在(zai)(zai)其(qi)控(kong)(kong)(kong)制技術上不(bu)(bu)斷(duan)改進,如集成(cheng)電(dian)(dian)(dian)路技術、PLC技術、微機監(jian)控(kong)(kong)(kong)、"三(san)遙"通訊等(deng)技術不(bu)(bu)斷(duan)融合(he)(he)其(qi)中,使相(xiang)控(kong)(kong)(kong)充電(dian)(dian)(dian)設備(bei)系(xi)統(tong)(tong)的可(ke)靠性(xing)(xing)不(bu)(bu)斷(duan)完善,因(yin)而(er)目前此(ci)(ci)類(lei)直(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)屏系(xi)統(tong)(tong),其(qi)產(chan)品的可(ke)靠性(xing)(xing)與(yu)實(shi)用(yong)性(xing)(xing)基本能令人(ren)滿意。但相(xiang)控(kong)(kong)(kong)充電(dian)(dian)(dian)機仍(reng)存在(zai)(zai)輸出(chu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)諧波(bo)大、電(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)紋(wen)波(bo)大,穩流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)精度較(jiao)(jiao)難提高的不(bu)(bu)足。同時(shi)由于(yu)其(qi)一(yi)(yi)般(ban)最多(duo)采用(yong)主從備(bei)份的方(fang)式(shi),在(zai)(zai)某些場合(he)(he),系(xi)統(tong)(tong)可(ke)靠性(xing)(xing)仍(reng)令人(ren)感到(dao)美中不(bu)(bu)足。所(suo)以,國外(wai)在(zai)(zai)一(yi)(yi)些對(dui)(dui)直(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)要求(qiu)較(jiao)(jiao)高的場合(he)(he)逐步采用(yong)一(yi)(yi)種(zhong)(zhong)較(jiao)(jiao)為(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)新(xin)型的高頻(pin)開關(guan)電(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan),整體(ti)結構采用(yong)模塊組合(he)(he)方(fang)式(shi),其(qi)模塊原理(li)圖(tu)如下,即先(xian)將(jiang)三(san)相(xiang)交流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)整流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)為(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)相(xiang)控(kong)(kong)(kong)直(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu),再(zai)變換為(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)高頻(pin)交流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu),高頻(pin)交流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)再(zai)經變壓(ya)器隔離、全橋整流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)、濾波(bo)轉換為(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)穩定的直(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)輸出(chu)。此(ci)(ci)種(zhong)(zhong)直(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)的最大特點是穩流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)精度高,紋(wen)波(bo)較(jiao)(jiao)小,諧波(bo)失(shi)真小,是一(yi)(yi)種(zhong)(zhong)高質量的直(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)。在(zai)(zai)組成(cheng)直(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)系(xi)統(tong)(tong)時(shi),可(ke)采用(yong)N個(ge)單元模塊組合(he)(he)的方(fang)式(shi)提供(gong)直(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)輸出(chu),因(yin)而(er)備(bei)份程度高,直(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)系(xi)統(tong)(tong)整體(ti)可(ke)靠性(xing)(xing)較(jiao)(jiao)高。此(ci)(ci)類(lei)直(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)目前國內(nei)已有廠(chang)家(jia)生(sheng)產(chan),但在(zai)(zai)整體(ti)外(wai)觀等(deng)方(fang)面略遜于(yu)傳統(tong)(tong)相(xiang)控(kong)(kong)(kong)直(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)屏,企業(ye)在(zai)(zai)選擇直(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)時(shi)可(ke)進行比較(jiao)(jiao)取(qu)舍(she)。
(3)直(zhi)流屏系統維護
鎘(ge)鎳電池在使用(yong)中應主要注意以下問題(ti):
1)定期對電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)組(zu)進行大功(gong)率的充、放(fang)電(dian)(dian)(dian),以激(ji)活電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)內部的化學(xue)物質,降(jiang)低(di)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)惰性,恢(hui)復電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)容量。
2)經常檢查電池液(ye)位(wei),在電池滿(man)容量時(shi)對過高、過低的電池液(ye)位(wei)及時(shi)進行調(diao)整。
3)定期檢查電池溶(rong)液濃度,發現(xian)比重(zhong)變(bian)化時予以補堿液或加水,必要時重(zhong)新配(pei)制電解液。
4)定期逐個(ge)檢查電(dian)(dian)池(chi)端電(dian)(dian)壓(ya),對個(ge)別電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)下降(jiang)較大(da)的電(dian)(dian)池(chi),單獨(du)進行"活化"處理。
5)注意電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)環境溫度(du),最好使電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)在(zai)40℃以下(xia)溫度(du)運(yun)行,以免(mian)加劇電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)的自放(fang)電(dian)(dian)(dian),引(yin)起(qi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)容量下(xia)降。
6)保持電池清潔及環境干爽,以免發生電池爬堿,導致電池容量(liang)下降(jiang)和(he)引起直流系統絕緣降(jiang)低。平時(shi)(shi)及檢修時(shi)(shi)對電池外(wai)溢的堿液應及時(shi)(shi)用干布擦凈,切(qie)不
可(ke)用水沖洗電(dian)池外部。
與鎘鎳電(dian)(dian)池(chi)相比,免維(wei)(wei)(wei)護鉛酸(suan)電(dian)(dian)池(chi)的維(wei)(wei)(wei)護運行(xing)中維(wei)(wei)(wei)護工作量較小,平時只需注意檢查電(dian)(dian)池(chi)各(ge)連(lian)接完好(hao),保持連(lian)接無銹蝕、腐蝕;觀察電(dian)(dian)池(chi)是否出現漲肚、變形;密封閥是否完好(hao);電(dian)(dian)極柱有無熔融跡象;以(yi)及保持電(dian)(dian)池(chi)清潔(jie)干燥等(deng)等(deng)。同時定期(qi)檢查電(dian)(dian)池(chi)單(dan)體端電(dian)(dian)壓,及時發現處(chu)理(li)失(shi)效電(dian)(dian)池(chi)。
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