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幾種不同充電狀態的性能描述

2019/4/12 17:04:05??????點擊:
1、待(dai)機狀態:
    在如下幾種情況下會處理待機狀態(tai):
    a. 輸(shu)入電(dian)(dian)壓低(di)于電(dian)(dian)路最低(di)工(gong)作電(dian)(dian)壓。
    b. 電池電壓(ya)充飽后(hou)。
    c. 利用外置開關強行關斷IC,停(ting)止(zhi)IC充電。
    待機狀態的電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流特性:充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)IC無充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓輸出(chu),IC輸入(ru)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流在uA級(ji),可以減小電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路損耗(hao)。
2、預(yu)充(chong)狀態:如上圖所示。預(yu)充(chong)電時的(de)(de)最佳電流:即當鋰(li)電池的(de)(de)初始/空載電壓低于預(yu)充(chong)電閾(yu)值(zhi)時,首先要經過一個(ge)預(yu)充(chong)電階(jie)段(duan)(duan),就單個(ge)鋰(li)離子電池而言,這個(ge)閾(yu)值(zhi)一般為3.0V,在此階(jie)段(duan)(duan),預(yu)充(chong)電電流大(da)約為下一個(ge)階(jie)段(duan)(duan)——恒流充(chong)電階(jie)段(duan)(duan)電流的(de)(de)10%左右。
3、恒(heng)流充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)狀態:如上圖所示最大充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流部(bu)分(fen),在(zai)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓已經大于(yu)預(yu)設電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓閥值(zhi)而小于(yu)最高電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓4.2V時,此(ci)時IC將以(yi)外掛電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻設定(ding)的(de)最大充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流來給電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。將電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓充(chong)到(dao)等于(yu)最大充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(4.2V附近)時為止。
。恒(heng)(heng)流充電(dian)(dian)(dian)時的(de)(de)最(zui)佳電(dian)(dian)(dian)流:所謂(wei)恒(heng)(heng)流就(jiu)是(shi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)流恒(heng)(heng)定,電(dian)(dian)(dian)壓逐漸升高,此時進入快速充電(dian)(dian)(dian)階(jie)段。大多(duo)數(shu)的(de)(de)恒(heng)(heng)流充電(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)流設(she)定為0.5~0.8C之間,可(ke)以理(li)解為0.7C,也(ye)就(jiu)是(shi)在不考慮(lv)其(qi)他因(yin)素的(de)(de)情況(kuang)下,大約兩個小時可(ke)以充滿。之所以選(xuan)擇0.7C,是(shi)因(yin)為這個電(dian)(dian)(dian)流很好地做到了充電(dian)(dian)(dian)時間與充電(dian)(dian)(dian)安全性的(de)(de)平衡(heng)。
恒流充電狀態時需要(yao)注意的幾個問題:
   1. 在(zai)此狀態下,IC處于(yu)最大充(chong)電電流(liu)狀態,此時的(de)(de)損耗也是(shi)也是(shi)最大的(de)(de)。線性(xing)降壓的(de)(de)損耗計算=(VIN-VOUT)×IOUT。此時需要注意IC的(de)(de)最高工(gong)作溫度。
   2. 因為最(zui)高充(chong)電(dian)電(dian)流的(de)造(zao)成溫升的(de)提高,IC會自(zi)動降低最(zui)大充(chong)電(dian)流。這就(jiu)是在過熱時充(chong)電(dian)電(dian)流下降的(de)原因。
4、恒壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)狀(zhuang)態(tai)(tai):如上(shang)圖所示(shi)最(zui)大(da)(da)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)部分,當(dang)檢測到電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)等于(yu)或者接近電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)時(shi)(shi)。此時(shi)(shi)將會以(yi)恒定(ding)4.2V充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya),而(er)逐步降(jiang)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)的(de)(de)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)方式。當(dang)檢測到充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)小于(yu)最(zui)大(da)(da)設定(ding)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)的(de)(de)1/10時(shi)(shi),將會停止(zhi)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。恒壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)時(shi)(shi)的(de)(de)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu):就(jiu)單(dan)節鋰(li)離(li)子電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)而(er)言,當(dang)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)達到一定(ding)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)值時(shi)(shi),即進(jin)入恒定(ding)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),這(zhe)個(ge)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)值一般為(wei)4.2V,在此階(jie)段(duan),電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)不變,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)減小;這(zhe)種電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)減小是(shi)個(ge)依次遞減過程,大(da)(da)多數的(de)(de)鋰(li)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)保護選(xuan)擇0.1C為(wei)終止(zhi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu),這(zhe)也就(jiu)意味著充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)過程進(jin)入結束狀(zhuang)態(tai)(tai)。一旦充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)結束,則充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)降(jiang)為(wei)零。在此狀(zhuang)態(tai)(tai)下(xia)需要注意的(de)(de)問題(ti)就(jiu)是(shi):當(dang)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)充(chong)大(da)(da)最(zui)高設定(ding)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)時(shi)(shi)可以(yi)自(zi)(zi)動關(guan)斷,同時(shi)(shi),當(dang)IC的(de)(de)過壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)保護點在非(fei)正常(chang)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)狀(zhuang)態(tai)(tai)下(xia),可以(yi)自(zi)(zi)動鎖(suo)定(ding)。
    鋰(li)電(dian)池(chi)(chi)最佳(jia)充電(dian)電(dian)流的(de)核心是恒流充電(dian)時的(de)電(dian)流設計,這(zhe)里要強調的(de)是,大多(duo)數便捷式鋰(li)電(dian)池(chi)(chi)較宜設計為0.5C~0.8C充電(dian),如(ru):iPhone的(de)1400mAh容(rong)量(容(rong)量mAh=電(dian)流mA×時間(jian)h)的(de)電(dian)池(chi)(chi)為例,蘋果選擇了(le)0.7C,即(ji)蘋果充電(dian)電(dian)流多(duo)為1A左右,大部分的(de)電(dian)池(chi)(chi)在0.5C--0.8C之間(jian)你們可以選擇了(le)!
    鋰電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池最大充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流嚴格說是由電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池結構(gou)決定的(de)(de),因而(er),各個(ge)鋰電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池生產廠家(jia)對此規(gui)定并(bing)不一致(zhi),有的(de)(de)設定為(wei)(wei)0.6C,便攜式鋰電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池最高的(de)(de)規(gui)定為(wei)(wei)1C。
    當然也不能忽視預充電和恒壓充電的電流設計,這兩個過程中,如果初始電壓不低于預充電閾值3.0V,則不存在預充電過程。總的來說,在恒流充電過程前后有一個事前醞釀和運動休整的過程有利于鋰電池的長期使用。上海施能(neng)電(dian)器設備有限公司始建于1984年,上海市高新技術企業,中國工業車輛優秀配套供應商,上海電器行業名優產品,主要生產工頻系列充電機,高頻系列充電機,鋰電池充電機系列放電機系列充放電機等電器產品。
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