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幾種不同充電狀態的性能描述

2019/4/12 17:04:05??????點擊:
1、待機狀態(tai):
    在(zai)如(ru)下幾種情況下會處理待機(ji)狀(zhuang)態:
    a. 輸入電(dian)壓低于電(dian)路(lu)最(zui)低工作電(dian)壓。
    b. 電池電壓充飽后。
    c. 利用外置開關(guan)強行關(guan)斷IC,停止IC充電。
    待機狀態的電(dian)壓(ya)電(dian)流(liu)特性:充電(dian)IC無充電(dian)電(dian)壓(ya)輸出,IC輸入電(dian)流(liu)在uA級,可以減(jian)小電(dian)路損(sun)耗(hao)。
2、預充(chong)(chong)(chong)狀態:如上圖所示。預充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)時的最佳電(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu):即(ji)當鋰(li)電(dian)(dian)池(chi)的初(chu)始/空載電(dian)(dian)壓低于預充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)閾值時,首先(xian)要經(jing)過一個(ge)(ge)預充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)階段,就單個(ge)(ge)鋰(li)離(li)子電(dian)(dian)池(chi)而言,這(zhe)個(ge)(ge)閾值一般為3.0V,在此(ci)階段,預充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)大約為下一個(ge)(ge)階段——恒流(liu)(liu)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)階段電(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)的10%左(zuo)右。
3、恒(heng)流(liu)充電(dian)(dian)狀態:如(ru)上圖所示(shi)最(zui)(zui)大(da)充電(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)流(liu)部分,在電(dian)(dian)池(chi)電(dian)(dian)壓已經大(da)于預設(she)電(dian)(dian)壓閥(fa)值(zhi)而小于最(zui)(zui)高(gao)電(dian)(dian)壓4.2V時,此(ci)時IC將(jiang)以外(wai)掛電(dian)(dian)阻(zu)設(she)定的(de)最(zui)(zui)大(da)充電(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)流(liu)來給電(dian)(dian)池(chi)充電(dian)(dian)。將(jiang)電(dian)(dian)池(chi)電(dian)(dian)壓充到(dao)等(deng)于最(zui)(zui)大(da)充電(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)壓(4.2V附近)時為止。
。恒(heng)流(liu)(liu)充(chong)電(dian)時的(de)(de)最佳電(dian)流(liu)(liu):所(suo)(suo)謂恒(heng)流(liu)(liu)就是(shi)電(dian)流(liu)(liu)恒(heng)定(ding),電(dian)壓逐漸升高,此時進入快(kuai)速充(chong)電(dian)階段。大多數的(de)(de)恒(heng)流(liu)(liu)充(chong)電(dian)電(dian)流(liu)(liu)設定(ding)為0.5~0.8C之間,可(ke)以理(li)解為0.7C,也就是(shi)在不考慮其他因素的(de)(de)情況(kuang)下,大約兩(liang)個小(xiao)時可(ke)以充(chong)滿(man)。之所(suo)(suo)以選擇0.7C,是(shi)因為這個電(dian)流(liu)(liu)很(hen)好地做到(dao)了充(chong)電(dian)時間與充(chong)電(dian)安全性的(de)(de)平衡。
恒流充電狀態時需(xu)要注(zhu)意的幾個(ge)問題:
   1. 在此(ci)(ci)狀態(tai)下,IC處于(yu)最(zui)大(da)充電電流狀態(tai),此(ci)(ci)時的(de)損(sun)耗(hao)(hao)也是也是最(zui)大(da)的(de)。線性(xing)降壓(ya)的(de)損(sun)耗(hao)(hao)計算=(VIN-VOUT)×IOUT。此(ci)(ci)時需要(yao)注意IC的(de)最(zui)高工作溫度(du)。
   2. 因(yin)為最高充電(dian)電(dian)流(liu)的(de)造(zao)成溫升的(de)提高,IC會自動降低最大充電(dian)流(liu)。這就是(shi)在(zai)過熱時充電(dian)電(dian)流(liu)下降的(de)原因(yin)。
4、恒(heng)壓(ya)(ya)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)狀(zhuang)態(tai):如上圖所示最大(da)(da)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)部分,當(dang)(dang)檢(jian)測(ce)到(dao)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)等于或者接近電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)時(shi)(shi)。此時(shi)(shi)將(jiang)會(hui)以恒(heng)定(ding)(ding)4.2V充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya),而逐(zhu)步降壓(ya)(ya)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)的(de)(de)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)方式。當(dang)(dang)檢(jian)測(ce)到(dao)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)小(xiao)于最大(da)(da)設(she)定(ding)(ding)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)的(de)(de)1/10時(shi)(shi),將(jiang)會(hui)停止(zhi)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。恒(heng)壓(ya)(ya)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)時(shi)(shi)的(de)(de)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu):就單節鋰(li)(li)離子電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池而言,當(dang)(dang)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池達到(dao)一定(ding)(ding)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)值(zhi)時(shi)(shi),即(ji)進入恒(heng)定(ding)(ding)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),這(zhe)個(ge)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)值(zhi)一般為4.2V,在此階(jie)段,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)不變,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)減(jian)小(xiao);這(zhe)種電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)減(jian)小(xiao)是(shi)(shi)個(ge)依次遞減(jian)過(guo)程(cheng),大(da)(da)多(duo)數的(de)(de)鋰(li)(li)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池保護選(xuan)擇0.1C為終止(zhi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu),這(zhe)也就意(yi)味著充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)過(guo)程(cheng)進入結(jie)束狀(zhuang)態(tai)。一旦充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)結(jie)束,則充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)降為零。在此狀(zhuang)態(tai)下(xia)需要注意(yi)的(de)(de)問題就是(shi)(shi):當(dang)(dang)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)大(da)(da)最高設(she)定(ding)(ding)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)時(shi)(shi)可以自動關斷,同(tong)時(shi)(shi),當(dang)(dang)IC的(de)(de)過(guo)壓(ya)(ya)保護點在非(fei)正常電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池狀(zhuang)態(tai)下(xia),可以自動鎖定(ding)(ding)。
    鋰電(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)最佳充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)電(dian)流的(de)(de)核心(xin)是恒(heng)流充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)時的(de)(de)電(dian)流設計(ji),這(zhe)里要強調的(de)(de)是,大多數便(bian)捷式鋰電(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)較宜設計(ji)為0.5C~0.8C充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian),如:iPhone的(de)(de)1400mAh容(rong)量(容(rong)量mAh=電(dian)流mA×時間(jian)h)的(de)(de)電(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)為例,蘋果選擇了0.7C,即蘋果充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)電(dian)流多為1A左(zuo)右,大部分(fen)的(de)(de)電(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)在0.5C--0.8C之間(jian)你們可以選擇了!
    鋰(li)電池(chi)最大充電電流(liu)嚴格說是由電池(chi)結構決(jue)定的(de),因(yin)而,各個鋰(li)電池(chi)生產廠家對(dui)此(ci)規定并不一(yi)致,有的(de)設定為0.6C,便(bian)攜式鋰(li)電池(chi)最高的(de)規定為1C。
    當然也不能忽視預充電和恒壓充電的電流設計,這兩個過程中,如果初始電壓不低于預充電閾值3.0V,則不存在預充電過程。總的來說,在恒流充電過程前后有一個事前醞釀和運動休整的過程有利于鋰電池的長期使用。上(shang)海(hai)施能電器(qi)設備有限公(gong)司始建于1984年,上海市高新技術企業,中國工業車輛優秀配套供應商,上海電器行業名優產品,主要生產工頻系列充電機,高頻系列充電機,鋰電池充電機系列放電機系列充放電機等電器產品。
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