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大功率電動汽車充電機的設計

2019/4/12 17:03:08??????點擊:
  純電(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)(dong)汽(qi)(qi)車(che)(che)(che)以鋰電(dian)(dian)(dian)池為動(dong)(dong)力(li)(li)源,充(chong)滿電(dian)(dian)(dian)后,以電(dian)(dian)(dian)力(li)(li)做功推動(dong)(dong)汽(qi)(qi)車(che)(che)(che)。不同于汽(qi)(qi)油(you)發動(dong)(dong)機汽(qi)(qi)車(che)(che)(che)需要(yao)添加汽(qi)(qi)油(you),純電(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)(dong)汽(qi)(qi)車(che)(che)(che)在(zai)(zai)電(dian)(dian)(dian)力(li)(li)耗光后通過外置(zhi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)源對其(qi)進行(xing)(xing)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian),通常單次行(xing)(xing)駛里程在(zai)(zai)100~200公里。與傳統汽(qi)(qi)車(che)(che)(che)相比(bi),純電(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)(dong)車(che)(che)(che)在(zai)(zai)使用成(cheng)(cheng)本上有著無(wu)以比(bi)擬(ni)的優勢,百公里約消耗15度電(dian)(dian)(dian),成(cheng)(cheng)本8元,僅相當于汽(qi)(qi)油(you)發動(dong)(dong)機汽(qi)(qi)車(che)(che)(che)成(cheng)(cheng)本1/10。目前,國家已(yi)著手(shou)進行(xing)(xing)電(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)(dong)汽(qi)(qi)車(che)(che)(che)和新(xin)能(neng)源汽(qi)(qi)車(che)(che)(che)的示范(fan)推廣(guang),電(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)(dong)汽(qi)(qi)車(che)(che)(che)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)站則(ze)是(shi)主要(yao)環節(jie)之一,必須與電(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)(dong)汽(qi)(qi)車(che)(che)(che)其(qi)他領域實現(xian)共同協調發展。
充電模式
  電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動汽車能源供給系(xi)統(tong)主要由供電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)系(xi)統(tong)、充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)系(xi)統(tong)和動力蓄電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池構成(cheng)。另外,還包(bao)括(kuo)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)監控、電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池管理和煙霧報警監控等。充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機是充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)系(xi)統(tong)的(de)(de)重要組成(cheng)部分。充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)站給汽車充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)一(yi)般分為(wei)三種方式:普(pu)通充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)、快速(su)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)、電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池更換。普(pu)通充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)多為(wei)交(jiao)流(liu)(liu)(liu)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),對于容(rong)量(liang)不(bu)(bu)超(chao)過5kW的(de)(de)交(jiao)流(liu)(liu)(liu)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機,輸入為(wei)額(e)定(ding)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓220V、50Hz的(de)(de)單相交(jiao)流(liu)(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),對于容(rong)量(liang)大于5kW的(de)(de)交(jiao)流(liu)(liu)(liu)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機,輸入為(wei)額(e)定(ding)線電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓380V、50Hz的(de)(de)三相交(jiao)流(liu)(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。將交(jiao)流(liu)(liu)(liu)插(cha)頭(tou)直接插(cha)在(zai)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動汽車充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)接口,充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)時間大約(yue)需要4~8小(xiao)時。快速(su)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)多為(wei)直流(liu)(liu)(liu)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),直流(liu)(liu)(liu)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機輸入為(wei)額(e)定(ding)線電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓380V、50Hz的(de)(de)三相交(jiao)流(liu)(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),輸出電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓一(yi)般不(bu)(bu)超(chao)過700V,輸出電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)一(yi)般不(bu)(bu)超(chao)過700A。交(jiao)流(liu)(liu)(liu)輸入隔離型AC/DC充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機的(de)(de)輸出電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓為(wei)額(e)定(ding)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓的(de)(de)50%~100%,并且輸出電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)為(wei)額(e)定(ding)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)時,功(gong)率因數應大于0.85,效率應不(bu)(bu)小(xiao)于90%。
  充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji)應(ying)能(neng)夠保(bao)證在充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)過程中動(dong)力(li)蓄(xu)(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)單體電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓、溫度和電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流不(bu)超過允許值。充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji)應(ying)具(ju)備防輸出短(duan)路和防反接功(gong)能(neng)。充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji)至少能(neng)為以(yi)下三種(zhong)類型動(dong)力(li)蓄(xu)(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)中的一(yi)種(zhong)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian):鋰(li)離(li)子蓄(xu)(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)、鉛酸蓄(xu)(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)、鎳氫(qing)蓄(xu)(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)。
  動力電池組充電模式采用“恒流―恒壓”兩階段充電模式。充電開始階段,一般采用最優充電倍率(鋰離子電池為0.3C)進行恒流充電。(C是電池的容量,如C=800mAh,1C充電率即充電電流為800mA)在這一階段,由于電池的電動勢較低,即使電池充電電壓不高,電池的充電流也會很大,必須對充電電流加以限制。所以,這一階段的充電叫“恒流”充電,充電電流保持在限流值。隨著充電的延續,電池電動勢不斷上升,充電壓也不斷上升。當電池電壓上升到允許的最高充電電壓時,保持恒壓充電。在這一階段,由于電池電動勢還在不斷上升,而充電電壓又保持不變,所以電池的充電流呈雙曲線趨勢不斷下降,一直下降到零。但在實際充電過程中,當充電電流減小到0.015C時,說明充電已滿就可停止充電。這一階段的充電叫“恒壓”充電,這一階段的充電電壓:U=E+IR為恒壓值。這是鋰離子動力電池組對充電模式的基本要求。此外,充電系統還必須具有自動調節充電參數、自動控制和自動保護功能。尤其在恒壓充電階段,如果單體電池的充電電壓超過允許的充電電壓時,充電機應能自動減小充電電壓和電流,使該電池的充電電壓不超過允許的充電電壓,防止該電池過壓充電。上海施能電器(qi)設備(bei)有限(xian)公(gong)司始建于(yu)1984年,上海市高新技術企業,中國工業車輛優秀配套供應商,上海電器行業名優產品,主要生產工頻系列充電機,高頻系列充電機,鋰電池充電機系列放電機系列充放電機等電器產品。
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