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大功率電動汽車充電機的設計

2019/4/12 17:03:08??????點擊:
  純(chun)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)(dong)汽(qi)(qi)(qi)車(che)(che)以(yi)鋰電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池為動(dong)(dong)力源,充滿電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)后,以(yi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)力做(zuo)功推動(dong)(dong)汽(qi)(qi)(qi)車(che)(che)。不(bu)同于汽(qi)(qi)(qi)油發(fa)(fa)動(dong)(dong)機(ji)汽(qi)(qi)(qi)車(che)(che)需(xu)要添加汽(qi)(qi)(qi)油,純(chun)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)(dong)汽(qi)(qi)(qi)車(che)(che)在電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)力耗(hao)光后通(tong)過外置電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源對(dui)其進行(xing)充電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),通(tong)常單(dan)次行(xing)駛里程在100~200公里。與傳統汽(qi)(qi)(qi)車(che)(che)相比(bi),純(chun)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)(dong)車(che)(che)在使用成本(ben)上有著無以(yi)比(bi)擬的(de)優勢,百(bai)公里約消耗(hao)15度電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),成本(ben)8元,僅相當(dang)于汽(qi)(qi)(qi)油發(fa)(fa)動(dong)(dong)機(ji)汽(qi)(qi)(qi)車(che)(che)成本(ben)1/10。目前,國家已著手進行(xing)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)(dong)汽(qi)(qi)(qi)車(che)(che)和新能源汽(qi)(qi)(qi)車(che)(che)的(de)示范推廣,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)(dong)汽(qi)(qi)(qi)車(che)(che)充電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)站則(ze)是主要環節之一,必須與電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)(dong)汽(qi)(qi)(qi)車(che)(che)其他領域實(shi)現共(gong)同協調發(fa)(fa)展。
充電模式
  電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動汽車(che)能源供給系(xi)(xi)統(tong)(tong)主要(yao)由供電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)系(xi)(xi)統(tong)(tong)、充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)系(xi)(xi)統(tong)(tong)和動力(li)蓄電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池構成。另外,還包括充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)監(jian)控、電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池管理和煙(yan)霧報警監(jian)控等。充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機是充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)系(xi)(xi)統(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)重(zhong)要(yao)組(zu)成部分。充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)站(zhan)給汽車(che)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)一般(ban)分為(wei)三種方式:普通充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)、快速充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)、電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池更換。普通充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)多為(wei)交(jiao)流(liu)(liu)(liu)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),對于(yu)容量不(bu)(bu)(bu)超(chao)過5kW的(de)(de)交(jiao)流(liu)(liu)(liu)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機,輸(shu)入(ru)為(wei)額(e)定(ding)(ding)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓220V、50Hz的(de)(de)單相交(jiao)流(liu)(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),對于(yu)容量大(da)于(yu)5kW的(de)(de)交(jiao)流(liu)(liu)(liu)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機,輸(shu)入(ru)為(wei)額(e)定(ding)(ding)線電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓380V、50Hz的(de)(de)三相交(jiao)流(liu)(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。將交(jiao)流(liu)(liu)(liu)插(cha)頭直接(jie)插(cha)在電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動汽車(che)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)接(jie)口,充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)時間大(da)約需(xu)要(yao)4~8小時。快速充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)多為(wei)直流(liu)(liu)(liu)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),直流(liu)(liu)(liu)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機輸(shu)入(ru)為(wei)額(e)定(ding)(ding)線電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓380V、50Hz的(de)(de)三相交(jiao)流(liu)(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),輸(shu)出(chu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓一般(ban)不(bu)(bu)(bu)超(chao)過700V,輸(shu)出(chu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)一般(ban)不(bu)(bu)(bu)超(chao)過700A。交(jiao)流(liu)(liu)(liu)輸(shu)入(ru)隔離型AC/DC充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機的(de)(de)輸(shu)出(chu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓為(wei)額(e)定(ding)(ding)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓的(de)(de)50%~100%,并且輸(shu)出(chu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)為(wei)額(e)定(ding)(ding)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)時,功率因數(shu)應(ying)大(da)于(yu)0.85,效率應(ying)不(bu)(bu)(bu)小于(yu)90%。
  充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji)應能(neng)夠保證在(zai)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)過程中動力蓄電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)單體電(dian)(dian)(dian)壓、溫(wen)度和(he)(he)電(dian)(dian)(dian)流不超過允許值。充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji)應具(ju)備(bei)防輸出短路和(he)(he)防反接(jie)功能(neng)。充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji)至少能(neng)為(wei)以下三種(zhong)類(lei)型動力蓄電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)中的(de)一(yi)種(zhong)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian):鋰離(li)子蓄電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)、鉛酸蓄電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)、鎳氫蓄電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)。
  動力電池組充電模式采用“恒流―恒壓”兩階段充電模式。充電開始階段,一般采用最優充電倍率(鋰離子電池為0.3C)進行恒流充電。(C是電池的容量,如C=800mAh,1C充電率即充電電流為800mA)在這一階段,由于電池的電動勢較低,即使電池充電電壓不高,電池的充電流也會很大,必須對充電電流加以限制。所以,這一階段的充電叫“恒流”充電,充電電流保持在限流值。隨著充電的延續,電池電動勢不斷上升,充電壓也不斷上升。當電池電壓上升到允許的最高充電電壓時,保持恒壓充電。在這一階段,由于電池電動勢還在不斷上升,而充電電壓又保持不變,所以電池的充電流呈雙曲線趨勢不斷下降,一直下降到零。但在實際充電過程中,當充電電流減小到0.015C時,說明充電已滿就可停止充電。這一階段的充電叫“恒壓”充電,這一階段的充電電壓:U=E+IR為恒壓值。這是鋰離子動力電池組對充電模式的基本要求。此外,充電系統還必須具有自動調節充電參數、自動控制和自動保護功能。尤其在恒壓充電階段,如果單體電池的充電電壓超過允許的充電電壓時,充電機應能自動減小充電電壓和電流,使該電池的充電電壓不超過允許的充電電壓,防止該電池過壓充電。上海施(shi)能電器(qi)設備(bei)有(you)限公司始建于1984年,上海市高新技術企業,中國工業車輛優秀配套供應商,上海電器行業名優產品,主要生產工頻系列充電機,高頻系列充電機,鋰電池充電機系列放電機系列充放電機等電器產品。
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