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電動汽車用鉛酸蓄電池,電動車專用蓄電池

2019/3/8 14:31:38??????點擊:
  電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)汽車(che)(che)已經走向人們的生活,但是(shi)(shi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)汽車(che)(che)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)問題一直都存在。目前市面上的電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)汽車(che)(che)主要(yao)分(fen)為兩(liang)種(zhong)類型,一種(zhong)是(shi)(shi)鉛酸電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)組(zu)車(che)(che)型,另一種(zhong)則是(shi)(shi)鋰(li)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)組(zu)車(che)(che)型。小編經常會在網上看到一些(xie)網友問到底是(shi)(shi)購(gou)買鋰(li)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)汽車(che)(che)還(huan)是(shi)(shi)鉛酸電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)車(che)(che);二者有何(he)區別(bie);哪種(zhong)相對(dui)更好些(xie)等等問題。
電動汽車專用蓄電池
造成這一困擾的的主要原因有兩點:
  第一(yi)是價(jia)格,鋰電(dian)池(chi)(chi)電(dian)動車的價(jia)格一(yi)般都(dou)是鉛酸電(dian)池(chi)(chi)電(dian)動車價(jia)格的2~3倍,所以鋰電(dian)池(chi)(chi)電(dian)動車的價(jia)格比鉛酸要高不少(shao)價(jia)錢;
  第二點則是電(dian)(dian)池(chi)性(xing)能問(wen)題,網上有(you)人調侃(kan)道:“鋰(li)電(dian)(dian)池(chi)電(dian)(dian)動車(che)太(tai)貴買不起,鉛酸(suan)電(dian)(dian)池(chi)電(dian)(dian)動車(che)太(tai)重搬不動”。
  鋰(li)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)在(zai)各(ge)個性能方面比(bi)鉛(qian)(qian)酸(suan)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)更優(you)越是(shi)毫無疑問的(de),目前最常見的(de)就是(shi)磷酸(suan)鐵鋰(li)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi),該(gai)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)不(bu)像鉛(qian)(qian)酸(suan)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)有(you)記憶效應,在(zai)經過1600多(duo)次充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)后,該(gai)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)的(de)的(de)存儲(chu)能力依然能夠(gou)達到85%,鋰(li)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)與鉛(qian)(qian)酸(suan)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)相比(bi),鋰(li)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)具有(you)重(zhong)量(liang)輕(qing)、比(bi)容量(liang)大、循環使(shi)用壽命長等優(you)點,它作為低速(su)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動汽車(che)車(che)載動力電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan),不(bu)僅輕(qing)量(liang)便(bian)攜(xie)方便(bian)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),而且有(you)助于整(zheng)車(che)產品(pin)之(zhi)“輕(qing)量(liang)化及(ji)簡約化”設(she)計。
  鉛(qian)(qian)(qian)酸(suan)(suan)電池(chi)的(de)電極(ji)主要由鉛(qian)(qian)(qian)及(ji)其氧(yang)化物制成(cheng),電解液是硫酸(suan)(suan)溶液。鉛(qian)(qian)(qian)酸(suan)(suan)電池(chi)荷電狀態(tai)下(xia),正極(ji)主要成(cheng)分(fen)為(wei)二氧(yang)化鉛(qian)(qian)(qian),負極(ji)主要成(cheng)分(fen)為(wei)鉛(qian)(qian)(qian);放電狀態(tai)下(xia),正負極(ji)的(de)主要成(cheng)分(fen)均為(wei)硫酸(suan)(suan)鉛(qian)(qian)(qian)。鉛(qian)(qian)(qian)酸(suan)(suan)電池(chi)因為(wei)有記憶效應(ying),在重疊500多次的(de)時(shi)候,該電池(chi)的(de)存儲能力就會(hui)大大下(xia)降。
  兩種電(dian)池(chi)除(chu)了都是屬于儲能(neng)裝置,其(qi)他(ta)都不怎么(me)一樣(yang)。鉛酸(suan)電(dian)池(chi)更安全,更便(bian)宜,但是能(neng)量密(mi)度比鋰電(dian)低(di),所(suo)以鉛酸(suan)電(dian)池(chi)的(de)體積就(jiu)大些。即便(bian)這樣(yang),高(gao)價(jia)格的(de)鋰電(dian)池(chi)電(dian)動(dong)車(che)仍(reng)然不能(neng)完全取代鉛酸(suan)電(dian)池(chi)電(dian)動(dong)車(che)。
  現(xian)階段而言(yan),在電池(chi)(儲能(neng))技術研究尚未能(neng)獲(huo)得突破性(xing)進展,即“低成本、高性(xing)能(neng)”電池(chi)尚未投入商(shang)品(pin)化實際(ji)應用之(zhi)(zhi)前,我(wo)們可以將(jiang)現(xian)有的(de)鉛酸電池(chi)和鋰電池(chi)的(de)優良特性(xing)聯合起來轉型(xing)升級,作為目(mu)前以至今后一段時期內之(zhi)(zhi)主(zhu)要研究課題。相信這對(dui)將(jiang)來低速電動汽(qi)車,甚至整(zheng)個電動汽(qi)車行業(ye)的(de)發展有著更(geng)明朗(lang)的(de)方向。
  就目(mu)前“鋰電(dian)車(che)(che)”普及率而(er)言,遠低于(yu)采(cai)用“鉛酸(suan)電(dian)池”車(che)(che)型產(chan)品,其原(yuan)因在于(yu),目(mu)前鋰電(dian)池成本(ben)仍相對偏高。因而(er),在現有“鋰電(dian)車(che)(che)”產(chan)品設計中,多采(cai)用減少鋰電(dian)池的容(rong)量配(pei)置,來相應降(jiang)低整車(che)(che)實施成本(ben)。對于(yu)上述相關問題的探討,希(xi)望能夠讓更多的消費者(zhe)認(ren)清(qing) “鉛酸電(dian)動和鋰電(dian)池”兩者(zhe)的分(fen)析。
  電動汽車使用(yong)中有可能出現這樣那樣的問題(ti),針對日(ri)常使用(yong)中電瓶會(hui)出現的一些問題(ti)進行(xing)答疑(yi)解惑。
一(yi)直以來電瓶作為“方便電源”一(yi)直被人們所廣(guang)泛使用(yong)(yong)特別是運用(yong)(yong),特別是在(zai)這些新能源電動汽(qi)車的(de)運用(yong)(yong)上,但是人們又對電池的(de)知(zhi)識卻了(le)解(jie)甚少。安全大于一(yi)切,所以了(le)解(jie)相關知(zhi)識非常必要(yao)。
“過充”導致蓄電池壞損
  “過充”就是(shi)過量給電動汽車的(de)(de)蓄(xu)電瓶充電而產生的(de)(de)一(yi)種對(dui)蓄(xu)電瓶化學(xue)和物理(li)性能起到破壞作用的(de)(de)現象。
  電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動汽車充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器在(zai)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)時(shi)是(shi)(shi)同(tong)時(shi)給串(chuan)聯而成的(de)蓄電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)瓶組(zu)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)較(jiao)高的(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)瓶會(hui)先充(chong)滿電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)較(jiao)低(di)的(de)蓄電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)瓶會(hui)后充(chong)滿甚至(zhi)一直在(zai)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),由于充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器是(shi)(shi)以總體(ti)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)為充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)或停(ting)止(zhi)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)設(she)定(ding)的(de),因此,先充(chong)滿電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)的(de)蓄電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)瓶就(jiu)會(hui)處(chu)在(zai)“過充(chong)”狀(zhuang)態(tai)。“壓(ya)(ya)差”小時(shi)對(dui)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)瓶影(ying)響不大,“壓(ya)(ya)差”大時(shi),經常“過充(chong)”的(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)瓶池(chi)一樣會(hui)產生電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)解液熱反應加(jia)劇,直至(zhi)把這節蓄電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)瓶充(chong)壞。
“虧電”導致電瓶壞損
  低速電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動汽車(che)所說的“虧電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)”是電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)瓶電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)量(liang)不足、電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)偏低時強行過量(liang)放(fang)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)產生的一(yi)種破壞蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)瓶極板涂層的現象。要知道,任何(he)車(che)載電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)的工作電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)都有一(yi)個標(biao)準(zhun)范(fan)圍(wei)(wei),超過這(zhe)個范(fan)圍(wei)(wei)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)容(rong)易短(duan)路甚至燒毀,低于這(zhe)個范(fan)圍(wei)(wei)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)無法啟(qi)動或正(zheng)常工作,甚至影(ying)響使用壽命,車(che)載電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)和蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)瓶都是這(zhe)樣(yang)。
大電流放電使電瓶壞損
  低速(su)電(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)(dong)汽(qi)車在啟(qi)動(dong)(dong)、加(jia)速(su)的(de)(de)瞬間電(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)很大(da)(da),一(yi)(yi)般(ban)會(hui)達(da)到20A—50A,根據低速(su)電(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)(dong)汽(qi)車電(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji)功率的(de)(de)大(da)(da)小,正常的(de)(de)放電(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)一(yi)(yi)般(ban)控制在10A以內(nei)為好。過(guo)載就是電(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)(dong)汽(qi)車行(xing)駛中(zhong)負載超重,如(ru)(ru)過(guo)量的(de)(de)載貨(huo)、載人等,過(guo)載會(hui)使蓄電(dian)(dian)(dian)池放電(dian)(dian)(dian)負荷加(jia)大(da)(da),長時間的(de)(de)大(da)(da)電(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)放電(dian)(dian)(dian),會(hui)直接影響極板涂層,加(jia)快極板軟化的(de)(de)過(guo)程。 還(huan)有就是路(lu)況不好也(ye)會(hui)使電(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)(dong)車頻繁的(de)(de)剎車和啟(qi)動(dong)(dong)。如(ru)(ru)坑(keng)洼、紅燈(deng)、路(lu)障等,都是造成大(da)(da)電(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)放電(dian)(dian)(dian)的(de)(de)因素(su)。因為電(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji)功率越(yue)大(da)(da),放電(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)也(ye)就越(yue)大(da)(da),對電(dian)(dian)(dian)瓶的(de)(de)損傷也(ye)就越(yue)大(da)(da)。
極板硫化導電瓶壞損
  在極(ji)板上生成白色堅硬的(de)硫酸(suan)鉛結(jie)(jie)晶,充電(dian)(dian)時又非(fei)常難于轉化(hua)(hua)為活性物質的(de)硫酸(suan)鉛,這就是硫酸(suan)鹽化(hua)(hua),簡稱“硫化(hua)(hua)”。這種硫酸(suan)鉛的(de)導電(dian)(dian)性不良、電(dian)(dian)阻大,溶解(jie)度和溶解(jie)速(su)度又很小(xiao),充電(dian)(dian)時恢復(fu)困難。因而(er)成為容(rong)(rong)量降(jiang)低(di)和壽(shou)命縮(suo)短的(de)原(yuan)因。硫化(hua)(hua)是蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)瓶容(rong)(rong)量減少的(de)主要癥(zheng)結(jie)(jie)。
介紹完鋰電池和鉛酸蓄電池,小編要提醒大家一下:除以上蓄電池壞損的主因外,電池質量差、極板脫落、電解液外漏、失水、外殼破損、電瓶接線端子斷裂等也是蓄電池壞損的原因,還有一些連我們都沒發覺的潛在因素。上海施能(neng)電器設備(bei)有限公司始(shi)建(jian)于1984年,上海市高新技術企業,中國工業車輛優秀配套供應商,上海電器行業名優產品,主要生產工頻系列充電機,高頻系列充電機,鋰電池充電機,系列放電機,系列充放電機等電器產品。
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