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電動汽車用鉛酸蓄電池,電動車專用蓄電池

2019/3/8 14:31:38??????點擊:
  電(dian)(dian)動(dong)汽車已(yi)經(jing)走向人們(men)的生(sheng)活,但(dan)是(shi)電(dian)(dian)動(dong)汽車電(dian)(dian)池(chi)問(wen)題(ti)一(yi)直(zhi)都存(cun)在。目前市(shi)面上(shang)的電(dian)(dian)動(dong)汽車主要分為兩種(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)類型,一(yi)種(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)是(shi)鉛酸(suan)電(dian)(dian)池(chi)組(zu)車型,另(ling)一(yi)種(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)則是(shi)鋰電(dian)(dian)池(chi)組(zu)車型。小編經(jing)常會在網上(shang)看到一(yi)些網友問(wen)到底是(shi)購買(mai)鋰電(dian)(dian)池(chi)電(dian)(dian)動(dong)汽車還是(shi)鉛酸(suan)電(dian)(dian)池(chi)電(dian)(dian)動(dong)車;二者有何區別;哪(na)種(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)相對更好些等等問(wen)題(ti)。
電動汽車專用蓄電池
造成這一困擾的的主要原因有兩點:
  第一是(shi)價(jia)格(ge),鋰電(dian)池(chi)電(dian)動(dong)(dong)車(che)的(de)價(jia)格(ge)一般都是(shi)鉛酸(suan)電(dian)池(chi)電(dian)動(dong)(dong)車(che)價(jia)格(ge)的(de)2~3倍,所(suo)以鋰電(dian)池(chi)電(dian)動(dong)(dong)車(che)的(de)價(jia)格(ge)比(bi)鉛酸(suan)要高(gao)不少價(jia)錢;
  第二點則是電(dian)池(chi)性(xing)能(neng)問題,網上有人調(diao)侃道:“鋰電(dian)池(chi)電(dian)動車太(tai)貴(gui)買不(bu)起,鉛酸電(dian)池(chi)電(dian)動車太(tai)重(zhong)搬不(bu)動”。
  鋰(li)(li)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)在(zai)各個性能方(fang)面比(bi)鉛(qian)酸電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)更優(you)(you)越是(shi)毫(hao)無疑問(wen)的(de)(de),目前最常見的(de)(de)就(jiu)是(shi)磷酸鐵鋰(li)(li)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi),該(gai)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)不(bu)像鉛(qian)酸電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)有記憶效應(ying),在(zai)經過1600多次充電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)后,該(gai)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)的(de)(de)存儲能力依然能夠達(da)到85%,鋰(li)(li)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)與鉛(qian)酸電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)相比(bi),鋰(li)(li)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)具有重(zhong)量(liang)輕、比(bi)容量(liang)大(da)、循(xun)環使(shi)用壽命長等優(you)(you)點,它作為(wei)低速電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)汽車車載動(dong)力電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan),不(bu)僅輕量(liang)便攜(xie)方(fang)便充電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),而且有助于(yu)整(zheng)車產(chan)品(pin)之“輕量(liang)化及簡約化”設計。
  鉛酸(suan)(suan)電池(chi)(chi)的(de)電極主要由鉛及(ji)其(qi)氧化(hua)物制成(cheng),電解液是(shi)硫(liu)(liu)酸(suan)(suan)溶液。鉛酸(suan)(suan)電池(chi)(chi)荷電狀(zhuang)態(tai)下(xia)(xia),正(zheng)極主要成(cheng)分(fen)(fen)為二氧化(hua)鉛,負極主要成(cheng)分(fen)(fen)為鉛;放電狀(zhuang)態(tai)下(xia)(xia),正(zheng)負極的(de)主要成(cheng)分(fen)(fen)均為硫(liu)(liu)酸(suan)(suan)鉛。鉛酸(suan)(suan)電池(chi)(chi)因為有記憶效應,在重疊500多次(ci)的(de)時候,該電池(chi)(chi)的(de)存(cun)儲能(neng)力就會大大下(xia)(xia)降。
  兩種電(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)除了(le)都是屬于(yu)儲能(neng)(neng)裝置,其他都不(bu)怎么一樣。鉛酸(suan)電(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)更安全,更便宜,但是能(neng)(neng)量(liang)密度比鋰電(dian)(dian)低,所(suo)以(yi)鉛酸(suan)電(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)的體積就大(da)些。即便這(zhe)樣,高價格的鋰電(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)電(dian)(dian)動車仍(reng)然(ran)不(bu)能(neng)(neng)完(wan)全取代鉛酸(suan)電(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)電(dian)(dian)動車。
  現(xian)(xian)階段而(er)言,在電池(儲能(neng))技(ji)術研(yan)究尚(shang)(shang)未能(neng)獲得突破性(xing)進展,即“低(di)成本、高性(xing)能(neng)”電池尚(shang)(shang)未投入商(shang)品化實際(ji)應用之(zhi)前(qian),我們可以將(jiang)現(xian)(xian)有(you)的(de)鉛酸電池和鋰電池的(de)優良特性(xing)聯(lian)合起來(lai)轉型升級,作為目前(qian)以至今后一段時期內之(zhi)主要研(yan)究課題。相信(xin)這對(dui)將(jiang)來(lai)低(di)速電動(dong)汽車,甚至整個電動(dong)汽車行業的(de)發展有(you)著更明朗(lang)的(de)方向。
  就目前“鋰電車(che)”普及(ji)率(lv)而言,遠(yuan)低(di)于采(cai)用“鉛酸電池(chi)”車(che)型產(chan)品(pin),其原因(yin)在于,目前鋰電池(chi)成本仍(reng)相對偏高。因(yin)而,在現有“鋰電車(che)”產(chan)品(pin)設計中,多采(cai)用減(jian)少鋰電池(chi)的容量配置,來相應降低(di)整(zheng)車(che)實(shi)施成本。對于上述相關問題的探討,希望能夠讓更多的消(xiao)費者認清 “鉛酸電動(dong)和鋰電池”兩者的分析。
  電動汽車使用中(zhong)有可能出現這樣(yang)那樣(yang)的問題(ti),針(zhen)對日常使用中(zhong)電瓶會出現的一些(xie)問題(ti)進行答疑(yi)解惑。
一直(zhi)以(yi)來電(dian)(dian)(dian)瓶作為“方便電(dian)(dian)(dian)源”一直(zhi)被人們所(suo)廣泛使(shi)用特別是運用,特別是在(zai)這些新(xin)能源電(dian)(dian)(dian)動汽(qi)車(che)的運用上,但是人們又對電(dian)(dian)(dian)池的知識(shi)卻了解(jie)甚(shen)少。安全大于一切,所(suo)以(yi)了解(jie)相(xiang)關知識(shi)非(fei)常必要。
“過充”導致蓄電池壞損
  “過充(chong)”就(jiu)是(shi)過量給電動汽(qi)車的蓄(xu)電瓶充(chong)電而產生的一(yi)種對蓄(xu)電瓶化學和物理性能起到破壞作用的現象。
  電(dian)(dian)(dian)動汽車充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)器在(zai)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)時是(shi)同時給串聯而成的(de)蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)瓶(ping)(ping)(ping)組充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian),電(dian)(dian)(dian)壓較高的(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)瓶(ping)(ping)(ping)會(hui)(hui)先充(chong)(chong)(chong)滿(man)(man)電(dian)(dian)(dian),電(dian)(dian)(dian)壓較低的(de)蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)瓶(ping)(ping)(ping)會(hui)(hui)后充(chong)(chong)(chong)滿(man)(man)甚至一(yi)直在(zai)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian),由(you)于充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)器是(shi)以(yi)總體(ti)電(dian)(dian)(dian)壓為充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)或停止充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)設定的(de),因(yin)此,先充(chong)(chong)(chong)滿(man)(man)電(dian)(dian)(dian)的(de)蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)瓶(ping)(ping)(ping)就會(hui)(hui)處在(zai)“過充(chong)(chong)(chong)”狀態。“壓差(cha)”小(xiao)時對電(dian)(dian)(dian)瓶(ping)(ping)(ping)影響(xiang)不(bu)大,“壓差(cha)”大時,經常“過充(chong)(chong)(chong)”的(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)瓶(ping)(ping)(ping)池一(yi)樣會(hui)(hui)產(chan)生電(dian)(dian)(dian)解液熱反(fan)應加劇(ju),直至把這節蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)瓶(ping)(ping)(ping)充(chong)(chong)(chong)壞。
“虧電”導致電瓶壞損
  低速(su)電(dian)(dian)(dian)動汽(qi)車(che)所說的(de)(de)(de)“虧電(dian)(dian)(dian)”是電(dian)(dian)(dian)瓶電(dian)(dian)(dian)量不(bu)足、電(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)偏低時(shi)強行過量放電(dian)(dian)(dian)產生(sheng)的(de)(de)(de)一種破壞蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)瓶極板涂層的(de)(de)(de)現象。要知道(dao),任何(he)車(che)載電(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)電(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)都有一個標準范(fan)圍(wei),超(chao)過這(zhe)個范(fan)圍(wei)電(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)容(rong)易短(duan)路甚(shen)至燒毀,低于(yu)這(zhe)個范(fan)圍(wei)電(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)無法啟動或(huo)正(zheng)常工(gong)(gong)作(zuo),甚(shen)至影響使(shi)用壽命(ming),車(che)載電(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)和蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)瓶都是這(zhe)樣(yang)。
大電流放電使電瓶壞損
  低(di)速(su)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)汽車(che)在啟(qi)(qi)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)、加速(su)的(de)(de)瞬間(jian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流很大(da)(da),一(yi)般(ban)(ban)會(hui)達到20A—50A,根據低(di)速(su)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)汽車(che)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機功(gong)率的(de)(de)大(da)(da)小,正常的(de)(de)放電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流一(yi)般(ban)(ban)控制在10A以(yi)內為好。過(guo)載就是電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)汽車(che)行(xing)駛中負(fu)載超重,如(ru)過(guo)量的(de)(de)載貨、載人等(deng),過(guo)載會(hui)使(shi)蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池放電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)負(fu)荷加大(da)(da),長(chang)時間(jian)的(de)(de)大(da)(da)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流放電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),會(hui)直(zhi)接影響極板(ban)涂(tu)層,加快極板(ban)軟化的(de)(de)過(guo)程(cheng)。 還有(you)就是路況不好也(ye)(ye)會(hui)使(shi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)車(che)頻繁的(de)(de)剎(cha)車(che)和(he)啟(qi)(qi)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)。如(ru)坑洼、紅燈、路障等(deng),都(dou)是造成(cheng)大(da)(da)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流放電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)的(de)(de)因(yin)素。因(yin)為電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機功(gong)率越(yue)(yue)大(da)(da),放電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流也(ye)(ye)就越(yue)(yue)大(da)(da),對電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)瓶的(de)(de)損傷也(ye)(ye)就越(yue)(yue)大(da)(da)。
極板硫化導電瓶壞損
  在極板上生成白(bai)色堅硬的(de)硫(liu)酸鉛(qian)(qian)結(jie)晶(jing),充電(dian)時又非(fei)常難(nan)于轉化(hua)為(wei)活性物質的(de)硫(liu)酸鉛(qian)(qian),這就(jiu)是硫(liu)酸鹽化(hua),簡稱“硫(liu)化(hua)”。這種硫(liu)酸鉛(qian)(qian)的(de)導(dao)電(dian)性不良、電(dian)阻(zu)大,溶(rong)解(jie)度和溶(rong)解(jie)速(su)度又很(hen)小,充電(dian)時恢復困難(nan)。因而成為(wei)容量降低和壽(shou)命(ming)縮短(duan)的(de)原因。硫(liu)化(hua)是蓄電(dian)瓶(ping)容量減(jian)少的(de)主(zhu)要癥結(jie)。
介紹完鋰電池和鉛酸蓄電池,小編要提醒大家一下:除以上蓄電池壞損的主因外,電池質量差、極板脫落、電解液外漏、失水、外殼破損、電瓶接線端子斷裂等也是蓄電池壞損的原因,還有一些連我們都沒發覺的潛在因素。上(shang)海(hai)施能電器設備有(you)限公司始(shi)建于1984年,上海市高新技術企業,中國工業車輛優秀配套供應商,上海電器行業名優產品,主要生產工頻系列充電機,高頻系列充電機,鋰電池充電機,系列放電機,系列充放電機等電器產品。
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