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詳解電容在電源中所起到的作用

2019/7/1 12:46:11??????點擊:
    作為無(wu)源元件(jian)之一的電(dian)容,其作用(yong)不外乎以下幾種:
    1、應用于電(dian)源電(dian)路(lu),實現旁路(lu)、去藕、濾(lv)波和儲(chu)能方面電(dian)容的(de)作(zuo)用,下面分(fen)類(lei)詳述(shu)之:
    1)濾(lv)波
    濾波(bo)是電(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)的作用(yong)中(zhong)很重(zhong)要的一部分。幾乎(hu)所(suo)有(you)的電(dian)(dian)源電(dian)(dian)路中(zhong)都會用(yong)到。從理論上(即假設電(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)為純電(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong))說,電(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)越(yue)(yue)大(da),阻抗(kang)越(yue)(yue)小(xiao),通(tong)(tong)過(guo)的頻(pin)(pin)(pin)率也(ye)越(yue)(yue)高。但(dan)實際上超過(guo)1uF的電(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)大(da)多為電(dian)(dian)解電(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong),有(you)很大(da)的電(dian)(dian)感成(cheng)份,所(suo)以頻(pin)(pin)(pin)率高后反(fan)而阻抗(kang)會增大(da)。有(you)時(shi)會看(kan)到有(you)一個電(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)量較大(da)電(dian)(dian)解電(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)并聯了一個小(xiao)電(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong),這(zhe)時(shi)大(da)電(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)通(tong)(tong)低(di)(di)頻(pin)(pin)(pin),小(xiao)電(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)通(tong)(tong)高頻(pin)(pin)(pin)。電(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)的作用(yong)就是通(tong)(tong)高阻低(di)(di),通(tong)(tong)高頻(pin)(pin)(pin)阻低(di)(di)頻(pin)(pin)(pin)。電(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)越(yue)(yue)大(da)低(di)(di)頻(pin)(pin)(pin)越(yue)(yue)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)易(yi)通(tong)(tong)過(guo),電(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)越(yue)(yue)大(da)高頻(pin)(pin)(pin)越(yue)(yue)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)易(yi)通(tong)(tong)過(guo)。具體用(yong)在(zai)濾波(bo)中(zhong),大(da)電(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(1000uF)濾低(di)(di)頻(pin)(pin)(pin),小(xiao)電(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(20pF)濾高頻(pin)(pin)(pin)。
    曾(ceng)有網友(you)將濾波(bo)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容 比作“水(shui)(shui)(shui)塘(tang)”。由(you)于(yu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容的(de)兩端電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)不會突變(bian),由(you)此(ci)可知,信號頻率(lv)越高則衰(shuai)減越大(da),可很(hen)形象的(de)說(shuo)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容像個水(shui)(shui)(shui)塘(tang),不會因幾滴(di)水(shui)(shui)(shui)的(de)加入(ru)或蒸發而引(yin)起水(shui)(shui)(shui)量的(de)變(bian)化(hua)。 它把電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)的(de)變(bian)動(dong)轉化(hua)為電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)的(de)變(bian)化(hua),頻率(lv)越高,峰值(zhi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)就越大(da),從而緩沖了電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)。濾波(bo)就是充電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),放(fang)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)的(de)過程。
    2)旁路(lu)
    旁(pang)路(lu)電(dian)容是為本地(di)(di)器(qi)(qi)(qi)件提供(gong)能量的(de)儲能器(qi)(qi)(qi)件,它(ta)能使穩壓器(qi)(qi)(qi)的(de)輸出均勻(yun)化,降低負(fu)載需(xu)求(qiu)。就像小型可充電(dian)電(dian)池一樣,旁(pang)路(lu)電(dian)容能夠(gou)被充電(dian),并向(xiang)器(qi)(qi)(qi)件進行(xing)放 電(dian)。為盡量減少(shao)阻(zu)抗,旁(pang)路(lu)電(dian)容要盡量靠近負(fu)載器(qi)(qi)(qi)件的(de)供(gong)電(dian)電(dian)源管腳和地(di)(di)管腳。這能夠(gou)很好地(di)(di)防(fang)止輸入值過大而導(dao)致(zhi)的(de)地(di)(di)電(dian)位抬高和噪聲。地(di)(di)彈(dan)是地(di)(di)連接處在(zai)通過大 電(dian)流毛刺時(shi)的(de)電(dian)壓降。
    3)去藕
    去(qu)(qu)藕(ou)(ou),又(you)稱解藕(ou)(ou)。從電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)來說(shuo),總是(shi)(shi)(shi)可以(yi)區(qu)分(fen)(fen)為驅(qu)(qu)動(dong)的(de)(de)源和被驅(qu)(qu)動(dong)的(de)(de)負載。如(ru)果(guo)負載電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)比較大,驅(qu)(qu)動(dong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)要把電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)充電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)、放(fang)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),才能完成信(xin)號(hao)的(de)(de)跳變,在(zai)上(shang) 升沿比較陡峭的(de)(de)時候,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流比較大,這(zhe)(zhe)樣驅(qu)(qu)動(dong)的(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流就會(hui)吸收很大的(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流,由于電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)中的(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)感,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻(特(te)別是(shi)(shi)(shi)芯(xin)片管(guan)腳上(shang)的(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)感,會(hui)產生反彈),這(zhe)(zhe)種電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流相對 于正(zheng)常情況來說(shuo)實際(ji)上(shang)就是(shi)(shi)(shi)一(yi)種噪聲,會(hui)影響前級的(de)(de)正(zheng)常工(gong)作(zuo)。這(zhe)(zhe)就是(shi)(shi)(shi)耦(ou)(ou)(ou)合。去(qu)(qu)藕(ou)(ou)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)就是(shi)(shi)(shi)起到一(yi)個電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)的(de)(de)作(zuo)用,滿足驅(qu)(qu)動(dong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流的(de)(de)變化,避免相互(hu)間的(de)(de)耦(ou)(ou)(ou)合干(gan)擾。將旁(pang)路(lu)(lu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)和去(qu)(qu)藕(ou)(ou)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)結合起來將更(geng)(geng)容(rong)易理解。旁(pang)路(lu)(lu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)實際(ji)也是(shi)(shi)(shi)去(qu)(qu)藕(ou)(ou)合的(de)(de),只(zhi)是(shi)(shi)(shi)旁(pang)路(lu)(lu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)一(yi)般(ban)(ban)是(shi)(shi)(shi)指高頻旁(pang)路(lu)(lu),也就是(shi)(shi)(shi)給(gei)高頻的(de)(de)開關噪聲提高一(yi)條低阻抗泄防 途徑。高頻旁(pang)路(lu)(lu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)一(yi)般(ban)(ban)比較小,根(gen)據(ju)諧(xie)振頻率一(yi)般(ban)(ban)是(shi)(shi)(shi)0.1u,0.01u等,而去(qu)(qu)耦(ou)(ou)(ou)合電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)一(yi)般(ban)(ban)比較大,是(shi)(shi)(shi)10uF或者更(geng)(geng)大,依據(ju)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)中分(fen)(fen)布參數,以(yi)及驅(qu)(qu)動(dong) 電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流的(de)(de)變化大小來確定。旁(pang)路(lu)(lu)是(shi)(shi)(shi)把輸入(ru)信(xin)號(hao)中的(de)(de)干(gan)擾作(zuo)為濾(lv)除(chu)對象,而去(qu)(qu)耦(ou)(ou)(ou)是(shi)(shi)(shi)把輸出信(xin)號(hao)的(de)(de)干(gan)擾作(zuo)為濾(lv)除(chu)對象,防止干(gan)擾信(xin)號(hao)返回電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源。這(zhe)(zhe)應(ying)該(gai)是(shi)(shi)(shi)他們的(de)(de)本(ben)質區(qu)別。
    4)儲能(neng)
    儲能型電(dian)容器(qi)(qi)通過整流器(qi)(qi)收集電(dian)荷,并將存儲的(de)能量通過變換器(qi)(qi)引線傳(chuan)送至(zhi)電(dian)源的(de)輸(shu)出端。電(dian)壓額定值為40~450VDC、電(dian)容值在220~150 000uF之間的(de)鋁電(dian)解(jie)電(dian)容器(qi)(qi)(如EPCOS公司(si)的(de) B43504或B43505)是較(jiao)為常(chang)用(yong)的(de)。根(gen)據不(bu)同的(de)電(dian)源要求(qiu),器(qi)(qi)件有(you)時會采用(yong)串聯、并聯或其組(zu)合的(de)形式, 對(dui)于功率(lv)級(ji)超過10KW的(de)電(dian)源,通常(chang)采用(yong)體積較(jiao)大(da)的(de)罐形螺(luo)旋端子電(dian)容器(qi)(qi)。
    2、應(ying)用于信(xin)號電(dian)路,主要完成耦合(he)、振蕩(dang)/同步及時(shi)間常(chang)數的作(zuo)用:
    1)耦合
    舉個(ge)(ge)例子來(lai)講,晶體管放大器發射極有一(yi)個(ge)(ge)自給偏壓(ya)電(dian)阻(zu),它(ta)同(tong)時又(you)使信號產生(sheng)壓(ya)降反饋到輸入(ru)端(duan)形成了輸入(ru)輸出信號耦合,這(zhe)個(ge)(ge)電(dian)阻(zu)就是產生(sheng)了耦合的(de)元件,如果在(zai)這(zhe)個(ge)(ge)電(dian)阻(zu)兩端(duan)并聯一(yi)個(ge)(ge)電(dian)容(rong)(rong),由于適當(dang)容(rong)(rong)量的(de)電(dian)容(rong)(rong)器對交流信號較(jiao)小(xiao)的(de)阻(zu)抗,這(zhe)樣就減小(xiao)了電(dian)阻(zu)產生(sheng)的(de)耦合效應,故稱此電(dian)容(rong)(rong)為去耦電(dian)容(rong)(rong)。
    2)振蕩/同步
    包括RC、LC振蕩器及晶(jing)體的負載電容(rong)都屬于這一(yi)范(fan)疇。
    3)時間常數
    這就是(shi)常(chang)見(jian)的(de) R、C 串聯構成(cheng)的(de)積(ji)分電(dian)(dian)路。當(dang)輸入信號電(dian)(dian)壓加(jia)在輸入端(duan)時(shi),電(dian)(dian)容(C)上(shang)的(de)電(dian)(dian)壓逐漸上(shang)升。而(er)其充電(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)流(liu)則(ze)隨著電(dian)(dian)壓的(de)上(shang)升而(er)減(jian)小。電(dian)(dian)流(liu)通過(guo)電(dian)(dian)阻(R)、電(dian)(dian)容(C)的(de)特性通過(guo)下(xia)面的(de)公式描(miao)述:
    i = (V/R)e-(t/CR)
    我們知道了電容的作(zuo)用(yong)以后下面來談(tan)談(tan)電容在使用(yong)中的注意事(shi)項
    A. 什么是好電容(rong)。
    1.電容容量(liang)越大越好。
    很多人在(zai)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)替換(huan)中往往愛用大容(rong)(rong)量的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)。我(wo)們知道雖然電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)越(yue)大,為IC提(ti)供(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流補償的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)能力越(yue)強(qiang)。且不(bu)說電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)容(rong)(rong)量的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)增(zeng)大帶來的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)體(ti)積變(bian)大,增(zeng)加成本的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)同時還影響(xiang)空氣流動和(he)散熱。關鍵在(zai)于電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)上存在(zai)寄生電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)感(gan),電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)放電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)回(hui)路(lu)會在(zai)某個頻(pin)點(dian)(dian)上發生諧(xie)振。在(zai)諧(xie)振點(dian)(dian),電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)阻(zu)抗(kang)小。因此放電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)回(hui)路(lu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)阻(zu)抗(kang)最(zui)小,補充(chong)能量的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)效(xiao)果也最(zui)好。但當頻(pin)率超過諧(xie)振點(dian)(dian)時,放電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)回(hui)路(lu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)阻(zu)抗(kang)開(kai)始(shi)增(zeng)加,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)提(ti)供(gong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流能力便開(kai)始(shi)下降。電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)容(rong)(rong)值越(yue)大,諧(xie)振頻(pin)率越(yue)低,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)能有效(xiao)補償電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)頻(pin)率范(fan)圍(wei)也越(yue)小。從保證電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)提(ti)供(gong)高頻(pin)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)能力的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)角度來說,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)越(yue)大越(yue)好的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)觀點(dian)(dian)是錯(cuo)誤的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de),一般(ban)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)設(she)計(ji)中都有一個參(can)考值的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)。
    2.同樣容(rong)量的(de)電容(rong),并聯越多的(de)小電容(rong)越好
    耐壓(ya)值(zhi)、耐溫值(zhi)、容(rong)值(zhi)、ESR(等效(xiao)電(dian)(dian)阻)等是(shi)電(dian)(dian)容(rong)的(de)(de)幾個(ge)(ge)重(zhong)要(yao)參數,對于ESR自然是(shi)越(yue)(yue)低越(yue)(yue)好(hao)。ESR與電(dian)(dian)容(rong)的(de)(de)容(rong)量(liang)、頻(pin)率、電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)、溫度(du)等都有(you)關系。當電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)固定(ding)時(shi)候,容(rong)量(liang)越(yue)(yue)大,ESR越(yue)(yue)低。在板卡設計中采用(yong)多(duo)(duo)個(ge)(ge)小(xiao)電(dian)(dian)容(rong)并(bing)連多(duo)(duo)是(shi)出與PCB空間的(de)(de)限(xian)制(zhi),這(zhe)樣(yang)有(you)的(de)(de)人就(jiu)認為,越(yue)(yue)多(duo)(duo)的(de)(de)并(bing)聯小(xiao)電(dian)(dian)阻,ESR越(yue)(yue)低,效(xiao)果越(yue)(yue)好(hao)。理論上是(shi)如此,但是(shi)要(yao)考(kao)慮到電(dian)(dian)容(rong)接腳焊點的(de)(de)阻抗,采用(yong)多(duo)(duo)個(ge)(ge)小(xiao)電(dian)(dian)容(rong)并(bing)聯,效(xiao)果并(bing)不(bu)一定(ding)突出。
    3.ESR越低,效果(guo)越好。
    結合我們上(shang)面(mian)的(de)(de)提高的(de)(de)供電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路來說(shuo),對(dui)(dui)于(yu)(yu)輸入(ru)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)來說(shuo),輸入(ru)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)的(de)(de)容(rong)(rong)量(liang)(liang)要(yao)大一(yi)點。相對(dui)(dui)容(rong)(rong)量(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)要(yao)求,對(dui)(dui)ESR的(de)(de)要(yao)求可(ke)(ke)以適(shi)當(dang)的(de)(de)降(jiang)低。因(yin)(yin)為(wei)(wei)輸入(ru)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)主要(yao)是(shi)耐(nai)壓,其(qi)次(ci)是(shi)吸收(shou)MOSFET的(de)(de)開(kai)關(guan)脈沖。對(dui)(dui)于(yu)(yu)輸出電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)來說(shuo),耐(nai)壓的(de)(de)要(yao)求和容(rong)(rong)量(liang)(liang)可(ke)(ke)以適(shi)當(dang)的(de)(de)降(jiang)低一(yi)點。ESR的(de)(de)要(yao)求則高一(yi)點,因(yin)(yin)為(wei)(wei)這里(li)要(yao)保證(zheng)的(de)(de)是(shi)足夠的(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流通過量(liang)(liang)。但(dan)這里(li)要(yao)注意的(de)(de)是(shi)ESR并不(bu)是(shi)越低越好,低ESR電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)會引起(qi)開(kai)關(guan)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路振(zhen)蕩。而(er)消振(zhen)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路復(fu)雜同(tong)時會導致成本(ben)的(de)(de)增加。板卡(ka)設計中(zhong),這里(li)一(yi)般有(you)一(yi)個(ge)參(can)(can)考值(zhi),此作為(wei)(wei)元件(jian)選用(yong)參(can)(can)數,避(bi)免消振(zhen)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路而(er)導致成本(ben)的(de)(de)增加。
    4.好(hao)電容代(dai)表著高品(pin)質。
    “唯電容論”曾經(jing)盛極一(yi)(yi)時,一(yi)(yi)些(xie)廠(chang)(chang)商和(he)媒體也(ye)刻意(yi)的把這個(ge)(ge)事情(qing)做(zuo)成一(yi)(yi)個(ge)(ge)賣點。在板卡(ka)設(she)計(ji)中,電路(lu)設(she)計(ji)水平是關鍵。和(he)有(you)的廠(chang)(chang)商可以用兩(liang)相供電做(zuo)出(chu)比一(yi)(yi)些(xie)廠(chang)(chang)商采(cai)用四相供電更穩定的產品(pin)一(yi)(yi)樣(yang),一(yi)(yi)味的采(cai)用高價電容,不(bu)一(yi)(yi)定能做(zuo)出(chu)好產品(pin)。衡量一(yi)(yi)個(ge)(ge)產品(pin),一(yi)(yi)定要全方(fang)位多角度的去考(kao)慮,切不(bu)可把電容的作用有(you)意(yi)無意(yi)的夸大。
    B. 電(dian)容爆漿之面面談
    爆(bao)漿(jiang)的種類(lei):
    分兩類,輸入電容爆漿和輸出電容爆漿。
    對于(yu)輸入電(dian)容來說,就(jiu)(jiu)是我是說的(de)(de)(de)C1,C1對由電(dian)源接收到的(de)(de)(de)電(dian)流進(jin)行過(guo)(guo)濾。輸入電(dian)容爆(bao)漿和電(dian)源輸入電(dian)流的(de)(de)(de)品質(zhi)有關(guan)。過(guo)(guo)多的(de)(de)(de)毛刺(ci)電(dian)壓,峰值電(dian)壓過(guo)(guo)高,電(dian)流不穩定等都使電(dian)容過(guo)(guo)于(yu)充放電(dian)過(guo)(guo)于(yu)頻繁,長時間處于(yu)這(zhe)類(lei)工作環境下的(de)(de)(de)電(dian)容,內部(bu)溫度升高很(hen)快。超過(guo)(guo)泄爆(bao)口的(de)(de)(de)承(cheng)受極限就(jiu)(jiu)會發生爆(bao)漿。
    對于輸出(chu)電容來說,就我說的(de)C2,對經電源模(mo)塊(kuai)調(diao)整后的(de)電流進行濾波。此處(chu)電流經過(guo)一次過(guo)濾,比(bi)較平穩,發(fa)生爆(bao)漿(jiang)的(de)可(ke)能性(xing)相對來說小(xiao)了不少(shao)。但(dan)如果環境溫度過(guo)高,電容同樣容易(yi)發(fa)生爆(bao)漿(jiang)。爆(bao),報也。采用垃圾東西自然要(yao)爆(bao),報應啊。欲(yu)知(zhi)(zhi)過(guo)去因者,見(jian)其(qi)現在果;欲(yu)知(zhi)(zhi)未來果者,見(jian)其(qi)現在因。
    電(dian)(dian)解電(dian)(dian)容爆漿的原(yuan)因:
    電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)爆漿(jiang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)原因有很多(duo),比如電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流大于允許(xu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)穩(wen)波電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流、使(shi)用(yong)(yong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)超出工(gong)作電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)、逆向電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)、頻繁的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)充放電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)等。但(dan)是(shi)(shi)最(zui)直(zhi)接(jie)(jie)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)原因就(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)是(shi)(shi)高溫(wen)(wen)(wen)。我們(men)知道(dao)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)有一個重(zhong)要的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)參數就(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)是(shi)(shi)耐溫(wen)(wen)(wen)值,指(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)就(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)是(shi)(shi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)內(nei)(nei)部電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)解液(ye)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)沸點。當(dang)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)內(nei)(nei)部溫(wen)(wen)(wen)度(du)達(da)到電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)解液(ye)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)沸點時(shi),電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)解液(ye)開始沸騰,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)內(nei)(nei)部的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)力升(sheng)高,當(dang)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)力超過(guo)(guo)泄爆口的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)承受極限(xian)就(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)發生(sheng)了爆漿(jiang)。所(suo)以說(shuo)溫(wen)(wen)(wen)度(du)是(shi)(shi)導(dao)致電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)爆漿(jiang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)直(zhi)接(jie)(jie)原因。電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)設計使(shi)用(yong)(yong)壽(shou)命(ming)大約為2萬小時(shi),受環境溫(wen)(wen)(wen)度(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)影響(xiang)也(ye)(ye)很大。電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)使(shi)用(yong)(yong)壽(shou)命(ming)隨溫(wen)(wen)(wen)度(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)增加而減小,實驗證(zheng)明環境溫(wen)(wen)(wen)度(du)每(mei)升(sheng)高10℃,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)壽(shou)命(ming)就(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)會(hui)減半。主要原因就(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)是(shi)(shi)溫(wen)(wen)(wen)度(du)加速化學反(fan)應而使(shi)介(jie)質(zhi)隨時(shi)間退化失效,這(zhe)樣電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)壽(shou)命(ming)終結。為了保(bao)證(zheng)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)穩(wen)定性,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)在插板前要經(jing)過(guo)(guo)長時(shi)間的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)高溫(wen)(wen)(wen)環境的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)測試。即使(shi)是(shi)(shi)在100℃,高品質(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)也(ye)(ye)可以工(gong)作幾千個小時(shi)。同時(shi),我們(men)提到的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)壽(shou)命(ming)是(shi)(shi)指(zhi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)在使(shi)用(yong)(yong)過(guo)(guo)程中,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)量不(bu)會(hui)超過(guo)(guo)標(biao)準范圍變化的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)10%。電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)壽(shou)命(ming)指(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)是(shi)(shi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)量的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)問題,而不(bu)是(shi)(shi)設計壽(shou)命(ming)到達(da)之后就(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)發生(sheng)爆漿(jiang)。只是(shi)(shi)無法保(bao)證(zheng)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)設計的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)量標(biao)準。
    所以,短時期內,正(zheng)常(chang)使(shi)用(yong)(yong)的(de)板(ban)卡電容就發生爆漿的(de)情(qing)況,這就是電容品質問題。另外,不正(zheng)常(chang)的(de)使(shi)用(yong)(yong)情(qing)況也(ye)有可(ke)能發生電容爆漿的(de)情(qing)況。比如(ru)熱插(cha)拔電腦配件(jian)也(ye)會導致板(ban)卡局部(bu)電路電流、電壓的(de)劇烈變(bian)化(hua),從而引發電容使(shi)用(yong)(yong)故障。
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