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詳解電容在電源中所起到的作用

2019/7/1 12:46:11??????點擊:
    作(zuo)為(wei)無源(yuan)元件之一的電容,其作(zuo)用不外(wai)乎(hu)以下幾(ji)種(zhong):
    1、應用于電源電路,實現(xian)旁路、去藕、濾波和(he)儲能方(fang)面電容的作用,下面分類(lei)詳述之:
    1)濾波
    濾(lv)(lv)波(bo)是(shi)電(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)的(de)作用(yong)中很重要的(de)一部(bu)分(fen)。幾(ji)乎所有(you)的(de)電(dian)源電(dian)路中都會用(yong)到。從(cong)理論(lun)上(shang)(即(ji)假設(she)電(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)為純電(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong))說,電(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)越(yue)(yue)大(da)(da),阻(zu)(zu)抗越(yue)(yue)小(xiao),通(tong)過(guo)的(de)頻(pin)(pin)率(lv)也(ye)越(yue)(yue)高。但實際上(shang)超(chao)過(guo)1uF的(de)電(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)大(da)(da)多(duo)為電(dian)解電(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong),有(you)很大(da)(da)的(de)電(dian)感成份,所以頻(pin)(pin)率(lv)高后反而阻(zu)(zu)抗會增大(da)(da)。有(you)時會看到有(you)一個(ge)電(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)量較大(da)(da)電(dian)解電(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)并(bing)聯(lian)了一個(ge)小(xiao)電(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong),這時大(da)(da)電(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)通(tong)低頻(pin)(pin),小(xiao)電(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)通(tong)高頻(pin)(pin)。電(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)的(de)作用(yong)就(jiu)是(shi)通(tong)高阻(zu)(zu)低,通(tong)高頻(pin)(pin)阻(zu)(zu)低頻(pin)(pin)。電(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)越(yue)(yue)大(da)(da)低頻(pin)(pin)越(yue)(yue)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)易(yi)通(tong)過(guo),電(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)越(yue)(yue)大(da)(da)高頻(pin)(pin)越(yue)(yue)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)易(yi)通(tong)過(guo)。具(ju)體用(yong)在濾(lv)(lv)波(bo)中,大(da)(da)電(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(1000uF)濾(lv)(lv)低頻(pin)(pin),小(xiao)電(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(20pF)濾(lv)(lv)高頻(pin)(pin)。
    曾(ceng)有網友將濾波電(dian)容(rong)(rong) 比作“水塘(tang)”。由于電(dian)容(rong)(rong)的(de)兩(liang)端電(dian)壓(ya)不會突變,由此可(ke)知,信號頻率(lv)越高則衰減越大,可(ke)很形(xing)象的(de)說電(dian)容(rong)(rong)像個(ge)水塘(tang),不會因幾滴(di)水的(de)加(jia)入或蒸發而引起水量的(de)變化(hua)(hua)。 它把電(dian)壓(ya)的(de)變動轉化(hua)(hua)為(wei)電(dian)流的(de)變化(hua)(hua),頻率(lv)越高,峰(feng)值電(dian)流就越大,從而緩沖了電(dian)壓(ya)。濾波就是充電(dian),放(fang)電(dian)的(de)過程。
    2)旁路
    旁路電(dian)(dian)(dian)容是為(wei)本地(di)器件提(ti)供能(neng)量(liang)(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)儲能(neng)器件,它能(neng)使穩壓器的(de)(de)輸出均勻化,降低(di)負(fu)載需求(qiu)。就(jiu)像小型可充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池一樣,旁路電(dian)(dian)(dian)容能(neng)夠被(bei)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian),并(bing)向器件進行放 電(dian)(dian)(dian)。為(wei)盡量(liang)(liang)(liang)減(jian)少(shao)阻抗,旁路電(dian)(dian)(dian)容要(yao)盡量(liang)(liang)(liang)靠近負(fu)載器件的(de)(de)供電(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)源管腳和地(di)管腳。這能(neng)夠很好(hao)地(di)防止輸入值過(guo)大(da)而(er)導(dao)致的(de)(de)地(di)電(dian)(dian)(dian)位抬高和噪聲。地(di)彈是地(di)連接處在通過(guo)大(da) 電(dian)(dian)(dian)流毛(mao)刺(ci)時的(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)壓降。
    3)去藕
    去藕(ou)(ou),又稱解藕(ou)(ou)。從電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)來(lai)說,總是(shi)(shi)可以區分為(wei)(wei)驅動(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)源和被驅動(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)負(fu)載。如果負(fu)載電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)比(bi)較(jiao)大(da)(da),驅動(dong)(dong)(dong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)要把(ba)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)充電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)、放電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),才(cai)能完成信號(hao)(hao)的(de)(de)(de)跳變(bian)(bian),在上(shang)(shang) 升沿比(bi)較(jiao)陡(dou)峭的(de)(de)(de)時(shi)候,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)比(bi)較(jiao)大(da)(da),這(zhe)樣驅動(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)就(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)會吸收很大(da)(da)的(de)(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu),由(you)于(yu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)中的(de)(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)感,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻(特別(bie)是(shi)(shi)芯片管腳上(shang)(shang)的(de)(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)感,會產(chan)生(sheng)反彈),這(zhe)種電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)相對(dui) 于(yu)正(zheng)常(chang)情況來(lai)說實際上(shang)(shang)就(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)是(shi)(shi)一(yi)(yi)種噪(zao)聲(sheng),會影響前級的(de)(de)(de)正(zheng)常(chang)工作。這(zhe)就(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)是(shi)(shi)耦合。去藕(ou)(ou)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)就(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)是(shi)(shi)起(qi)到(dao)一(yi)(yi)個電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)的(de)(de)(de)作用,滿足驅動(dong)(dong)(dong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)的(de)(de)(de)變(bian)(bian)化,避免(mian)相互(hu)間的(de)(de)(de)耦合干(gan)擾(rao)(rao)。將旁(pang)路(lu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)和去藕(ou)(ou)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)結合起(qi)來(lai)將更(geng)(geng)容(rong)(rong)易理解。旁(pang)路(lu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)實際也(ye)是(shi)(shi)去藕(ou)(ou)合的(de)(de)(de),只是(shi)(shi)旁(pang)路(lu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)一(yi)(yi)般(ban)是(shi)(shi)指高頻旁(pang)路(lu),也(ye)就(jiu)(jiu)(jiu)是(shi)(shi)給高頻的(de)(de)(de)開關(guan)噪(zao)聲(sheng)提高一(yi)(yi)條低阻抗泄防 途徑。高頻旁(pang)路(lu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)一(yi)(yi)般(ban)比(bi)較(jiao)小,根據諧(xie)振(zhen)頻率一(yi)(yi)般(ban)是(shi)(shi)0.1u,0.01u等,而去耦合電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)一(yi)(yi)般(ban)比(bi)較(jiao)大(da)(da),是(shi)(shi)10uF或者更(geng)(geng)大(da)(da),依據電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)中分布參(can)數(shu),以及驅動(dong)(dong)(dong) 電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)的(de)(de)(de)變(bian)(bian)化大(da)(da)小來(lai)確定。旁(pang)路(lu)是(shi)(shi)把(ba)輸入信號(hao)(hao)中的(de)(de)(de)干(gan)擾(rao)(rao)作為(wei)(wei)濾(lv)除對(dui)象,而去耦是(shi)(shi)把(ba)輸出(chu)信號(hao)(hao)的(de)(de)(de)干(gan)擾(rao)(rao)作為(wei)(wei)濾(lv)除對(dui)象,防止干(gan)擾(rao)(rao)信號(hao)(hao)返(fan)回電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源。這(zhe)應該是(shi)(shi)他們的(de)(de)(de)本(ben)質區別(bie)。
    4)儲能(neng)
    儲(chu)能(neng)型電(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)器通(tong)過(guo)整流器收集電(dian)(dian)(dian)荷,并將存儲(chu)的(de)(de)(de)能(neng)量(liang)通(tong)過(guo)變換器引線傳送至電(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)的(de)(de)(de)輸出端(duan)。電(dian)(dian)(dian)壓額定值(zhi)為(wei)40~450VDC、電(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)值(zhi)在220~150 000uF之間的(de)(de)(de)鋁電(dian)(dian)(dian)解電(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)器(如EPCOS公司的(de)(de)(de) B43504或B43505)是較(jiao)為(wei)常用的(de)(de)(de)。根據不(bu)同(tong)的(de)(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)要求(qiu),器件有時會(hui)采用串聯、并聯或其組合的(de)(de)(de)形式, 對于(yu)功率(lv)級(ji)超過(guo)10KW的(de)(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan),通(tong)常采用體積(ji)較(jiao)大的(de)(de)(de)罐形螺(luo)旋端(duan)子(zi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)器。
    2、應用(yong)于(yu)信號電路,主要完成耦(ou)合、振(zhen)蕩/同步及(ji)時間常(chang)數的作用(yong):
    1)耦合
    舉個例子來講(jiang),晶體管放大器(qi)(qi)發射(she)極有一個自給偏(pian)壓(ya)電阻(zu),它(ta)同時又使信號(hao)產生壓(ya)降反饋到輸(shu)入(ru)端(duan)形成了輸(shu)入(ru)輸(shu)出信號(hao)耦(ou)合,這個電阻(zu)就是產生了耦(ou)合的元件,如果在這個電阻(zu)兩端(duan)并(bing)聯一個電容,由于適當容量的電容器(qi)(qi)對交流信號(hao)較(jiao)小的阻(zu)抗,這樣(yang)就減小了電阻(zu)產生的耦(ou)合效(xiao)應,故稱(cheng)此(ci)電容為(wei)去耦(ou)電容。
    2)振蕩(dang)/同(tong)步
    包括(kuo)RC、LC振蕩器及晶體的負(fu)載電容(rong)都(dou)屬于這一(yi)范疇。
    3)時間常數
    這就(jiu)是常(chang)見的 R、C 串聯構成(cheng)的積分電(dian)路。當輸入信號電(dian)壓加在(zai)輸入端時,電(dian)容(C)上(shang)的電(dian)壓逐漸上(shang)升。而(er)其充電(dian)電(dian)流則(ze)隨著(zhu)電(dian)壓的上(shang)升而(er)減小(xiao)。電(dian)流通過電(dian)阻(R)、電(dian)容(C)的特性通過下面的公式(shi)描述:
    i = (V/R)e-(t/CR)
    我(wo)們知道了電容的作(zuo)用以后下(xia)面來談(tan)談(tan)電容在使用中的注意事項
    A. 什么是(shi)好電容。
    1.電(dian)容(rong)容(rong)量越大越好。
    很多人在(zai)電(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)替換(huan)中往往愛(ai)用大容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)量(liang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)。我們知道雖然電(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)越大,為IC提供(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)流(liu)補償的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)能(neng)(neng)力越強。且不說電(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)量(liang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)增大帶(dai)來的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)體(ti)積(ji)變大,增加(jia)成本的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)同時還影(ying)響空(kong)氣流(liu)動和散熱(re)。關鍵在(zai)于電(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)上(shang)存在(zai)寄生電(dian)(dian)感(gan),電(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)放電(dian)(dian)回(hui)路會在(zai)某個(ge)頻點上(shang)發(fa)生諧(xie)振(zhen)。在(zai)諧(xie)振(zhen)點,電(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)阻(zu)抗(kang)小(xiao)。因(yin)此放電(dian)(dian)回(hui)路的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)阻(zu)抗(kang)最小(xiao),補充能(neng)(neng)量(liang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)效果也最好。但當頻率(lv)(lv)超過諧(xie)振(zhen)點時,放電(dian)(dian)回(hui)路的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)阻(zu)抗(kang)開(kai)始(shi)增加(jia),電(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)提供(gong)電(dian)(dian)流(liu)能(neng)(neng)力便開(kai)始(shi)下降。電(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)值越大,諧(xie)振(zhen)頻率(lv)(lv)越低,電(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)能(neng)(neng)有效補償電(dian)(dian)流(liu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)頻率(lv)(lv)范(fan)圍也越小(xiao)。從保證(zheng)電(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)提供(gong)高頻電(dian)(dian)流(liu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)能(neng)(neng)力的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)角度來說,電(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)越大越好的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)觀點是錯誤的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de),一(yi)般的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)路設計(ji)中都有一(yi)個(ge)參(can)考值的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)。
    2.同樣容量(liang)的(de)電容,并聯(lian)越(yue)多的(de)小(xiao)電容越(yue)好
    耐壓(ya)值、耐溫(wen)值、容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)值、ESR(等效電(dian)(dian)(dian)阻)等是(shi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)的(de)(de)幾個(ge)重要(yao)參數,對于(yu)ESR自然是(shi)越(yue)低(di)越(yue)好(hao)。ESR與(yu)(yu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)的(de)(de)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)量、頻率、電(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)、溫(wen)度等都有關系。當電(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)固(gu)定時(shi)候(hou),容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)量越(yue)大,ESR越(yue)低(di)。在板卡設(she)計中采用(yong)多個(ge)小電(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)并連多是(shi)出(chu)與(yu)(yu)PCB空間的(de)(de)限制,這(zhe)樣有的(de)(de)人就認為,越(yue)多的(de)(de)并聯小電(dian)(dian)(dian)阻,ESR越(yue)低(di),效果越(yue)好(hao)。理論上是(shi)如此(ci),但是(shi)要(yao)考慮到(dao)電(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)接腳焊點的(de)(de)阻抗,采用(yong)多個(ge)小電(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)并聯,效果并不一(yi)定突出(chu)。
    3.ESR越(yue)低,效果(guo)越(yue)好。
    結(jie)合我們(men)上面的提高的供(gong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)路來說,對于輸(shu)(shu)入電(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)來說,輸(shu)(shu)入電(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)的容(rong)(rong)量(liang)要(yao)(yao)大一點。相對容(rong)(rong)量(liang)的要(yao)(yao)求,對ESR的要(yao)(yao)求可以適(shi)當的降低(di)(di)(di)。因為輸(shu)(shu)入電(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)主要(yao)(yao)是(shi)(shi)耐(nai)(nai)壓,其次(ci)是(shi)(shi)吸收(shou)MOSFET的開關(guan)脈沖。對于輸(shu)(shu)出電(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)來說,耐(nai)(nai)壓的要(yao)(yao)求和容(rong)(rong)量(liang)可以適(shi)當的降低(di)(di)(di)一點。ESR的要(yao)(yao)求則高一點,因為這(zhe)里要(yao)(yao)保證的是(shi)(shi)足(zu)夠的電(dian)(dian)(dian)流通過量(liang)。但這(zhe)里要(yao)(yao)注(zhu)意的是(shi)(shi)ESR并不是(shi)(shi)越(yue)低(di)(di)(di)越(yue)好,低(di)(di)(di)ESR電(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)會(hui)引起(qi)開關(guan)電(dian)(dian)(dian)路振(zhen)蕩。而消振(zhen)電(dian)(dian)(dian)路復雜同時會(hui)導(dao)致成本(ben)的增加(jia)。板(ban)卡設計中,這(zhe)里一般有一個參考值,此作為元(yuan)件選用參數,避(bi)免消振(zhen)電(dian)(dian)(dian)路而導(dao)致成本(ben)的增加(jia)。
    4.好電容代表著高品(pin)質。
    “唯(wei)電(dian)(dian)容論”曾經盛極一(yi)(yi)時(shi),一(yi)(yi)些(xie)廠(chang)商(shang)和媒(mei)體也(ye)刻意的(de)(de)把這個事情做成(cheng)一(yi)(yi)個賣點。在(zai)板卡設計中,電(dian)(dian)路(lu)設計水平是關(guan)鍵。和有(you)的(de)(de)廠(chang)商(shang)可以(yi)用(yong)兩相(xiang)供(gong)電(dian)(dian)做出比一(yi)(yi)些(xie)廠(chang)商(shang)采用(yong)四相(xiang)供(gong)電(dian)(dian)更(geng)穩定(ding)的(de)(de)產(chan)(chan)品(pin)一(yi)(yi)樣,一(yi)(yi)味的(de)(de)采用(yong)高價電(dian)(dian)容,不一(yi)(yi)定(ding)能做出好產(chan)(chan)品(pin)。衡量(liang)一(yi)(yi)個產(chan)(chan)品(pin),一(yi)(yi)定(ding)要全(quan)方(fang)位多角度(du)的(de)(de)去考慮,切不可把電(dian)(dian)容的(de)(de)作用(yong)有(you)意無意的(de)(de)夸大。
    B. 電容爆漿之面面談(tan)
    爆漿的(de)種類:
    分兩(liang)類(lei),輸入電(dian)容爆漿(jiang)(jiang)和輸出電(dian)容爆漿(jiang)(jiang)。
    對(dui)于(yu)輸(shu)入電(dian)容來說,就是(shi)我是(shi)說的C1,C1對(dui)由電(dian)源接收到的電(dian)流進行過(guo)(guo)濾。輸(shu)入電(dian)容爆(bao)漿(jiang)和(he)電(dian)源輸(shu)入電(dian)流的品質(zhi)有(you)關。過(guo)(guo)多的毛刺電(dian)壓,峰值(zhi)電(dian)壓過(guo)(guo)高,電(dian)流不穩定(ding)等都使(shi)電(dian)容過(guo)(guo)于(yu)充(chong)放電(dian)過(guo)(guo)于(yu)頻繁(fan),長時間處于(yu)這類工作(zuo)環境下的電(dian)容,內(nei)部溫度升高很快。超(chao)過(guo)(guo)泄(xie)爆(bao)口的承(cheng)受極限就會發(fa)生爆(bao)漿(jiang)。
    對于輸出電(dian)容(rong)來說,就我說的(de)C2,對經電(dian)源模塊調整后的(de)電(dian)流(liu)(liu)進行(xing)濾(lv)波。此處電(dian)流(liu)(liu)經過一次過濾(lv),比較平穩,發生爆(bao)(bao)漿的(de)可能性相對來說小(xiao)了(le)不(bu)少。但如果(guo)環境溫度過高,電(dian)容(rong)同樣(yang)容(rong)易發生爆(bao)(bao)漿。爆(bao)(bao),報也。采用(yong)垃圾(ji)東西(xi)自然要爆(bao)(bao),報應(ying)啊。欲知過去(qu)因者,見(jian)其現在果(guo);欲知未來果(guo)者,見(jian)其現在因。
    電解電容爆漿(jiang)的(de)原因(yin):
    電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)爆(bao)(bao)漿(jiang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)原(yuan)(yuan)因有很多,比如電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流大于允許的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)穩波電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流、使(shi)用電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)超出(chu)工作電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)、逆(ni)向電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)、頻繁的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)充放(fang)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)等(deng)。但是(shi)(shi)最(zui)直(zhi)接(jie)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)原(yuan)(yuan)因就(jiu)是(shi)(shi)高(gao)(gao)溫(wen)。我(wo)們(men)知道電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)有一個重要(yao)(yao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)參數就(jiu)是(shi)(shi)耐溫(wen)值(zhi),指的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)就(jiu)是(shi)(shi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)內部電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)解液的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)沸(fei)(fei)點(dian)。當(dang)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)內部溫(wen)度(du)(du)達(da)到(dao)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)解液的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)沸(fei)(fei)點(dian)時,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)解液開始沸(fei)(fei)騰,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)內部的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)壓(ya)(ya)力升(sheng)高(gao)(gao),當(dang)壓(ya)(ya)力超過泄爆(bao)(bao)口的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)承受極限就(jiu)發生(sheng)了爆(bao)(bao)漿(jiang)。所以說溫(wen)度(du)(du)是(shi)(shi)導(dao)致電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)爆(bao)(bao)漿(jiang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)直(zhi)接(jie)原(yuan)(yuan)因。電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)設計使(shi)用壽(shou)(shou)命(ming)大約為2萬(wan)小時,受環境溫(wen)度(du)(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)影響也(ye)很大。電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)使(shi)用壽(shou)(shou)命(ming)隨(sui)溫(wen)度(du)(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)增加而減(jian)小,實驗(yan)證(zheng)(zheng)明環境溫(wen)度(du)(du)每(mei)升(sheng)高(gao)(gao)10℃,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)壽(shou)(shou)命(ming)就(jiu)會(hui)(hui)減(jian)半。主要(yao)(yao)原(yuan)(yuan)因就(jiu)是(shi)(shi)溫(wen)度(du)(du)加速(su)化學反應而使(shi)介質(zhi)隨(sui)時間退(tui)化失效,這樣電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)壽(shou)(shou)命(ming)終結。為了保證(zheng)(zheng)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)穩定性,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)在插板前要(yao)(yao)經過長時間的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)高(gao)(gao)溫(wen)環境的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)測試。即使(shi)是(shi)(shi)在100℃,高(gao)(gao)品質(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)也(ye)可以工作幾千個小時。同時,我(wo)們(men)提到(dao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)壽(shou)(shou)命(ming)是(shi)(shi)指電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)在使(shi)用過程中,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)量(liang)不會(hui)(hui)超過標準(zhun)范圍變(bian)化的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)10%。電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)壽(shou)(shou)命(ming)指的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)是(shi)(shi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)量(liang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)問題,而不是(shi)(shi)設計壽(shou)(shou)命(ming)到(dao)達(da)之后就(jiu)發生(sheng)爆(bao)(bao)漿(jiang)。只是(shi)(shi)無法保證(zheng)(zheng)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)設計的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)量(liang)標準(zhun)。
    所(suo)以,短時期內,正常使用(yong)的(de)板(ban)卡(ka)電容(rong)就(jiu)(jiu)發(fa)生(sheng)爆漿(jiang)(jiang)的(de)情況,這就(jiu)(jiu)是電容(rong)品(pin)質問題。另外,不(bu)正常的(de)使用(yong)情況也有可能發(fa)生(sheng)電容(rong)爆漿(jiang)(jiang)的(de)情況。比如熱插拔電腦配件也會導致板(ban)卡(ka)局部電路電流(liu)、電壓的(de)劇烈變化,從(cong)而引發(fa)電容(rong)使用(yong)故障。
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