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UPS工頻機和高頻機的區別

2019/6/4 10:04:36??????點擊:

        用(yong)(yong)戶在購(gou)買大(da)功率UPS的(de)(de)時(shi)候,常常面(mian)(mian)臨在工(gong)頻(pin)(pin)(pin)機和(he)高(gao)頻(pin)(pin)(pin)機之間進行選擇(ze)的(de)(de)困惑。就UPS廠商(shang)方(fang)面(mian)(mian)而(er)言(yan),當(dang)然都(dou)認為是自己的(de)(de)好,“公說(shuo)(shuo)公有(you)(you)(you)理,婆說(shuo)(shuo)婆有(you)(you)(you)理”。提(ti)供(gong)工(gong)頻(pin)(pin)(pin)機的(de)(de)廠商(shang)說(shuo)(shuo)工(gong)頻(pin)(pin)(pin)機穩定性(xing)(xing)和(he)可(ke)靠性(xing)(xing)高(gao);提(ti)供(gong)高(gao)頻(pin)(pin)(pin)機的(de)(de)廠商(shang)會說(shuo)(shuo)高(gao)頻(pin)(pin)(pin)機節(jie)省(sheng)空間,成本相對(dui)較低(di)等諸如此類(lei)的(de)(de)說(shuo)(shuo)法(fa)。其(qi)實,工(gong)頻(pin)(pin)(pin)機和(he)高(gao)頻(pin)(pin)(pin)機到底(di)孰優孰劣,很難一概而(er)論,可(ke)以說(shuo)(shuo)各(ge)有(you)(you)(you)利(li)弊。用(yong)(yong)戶應當(dang)在全面(mian)(mian)認識這(zhe)兩種UPS機型的(de)(de)基礎上,客觀審視(shi)自身的(de)(de)應用(yong)(yong)和(he)需求,選擇(ze)適合自己需要的(de)(de)產品。

  工頻機和高頻機的原理分析

  工(gong)頻(pin)(pin)機(ji)(ji)和(he)高(gao)頻(pin)(pin)機(ji)(ji)是(shi)按UPS的(de)(de)設(she)計電路(lu)(lu)工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)頻(pin)(pin)率(lv)(lv)來區(qu)分的(de)(de)。工(gong)頻(pin)(pin)機(ji)(ji)是(shi)以(yi)傳統的(de)(de)模擬電路(lu)(lu)原理設(she)計,由(you)晶閘管(SCR)整(zheng)流(liu)器、IGBT逆變(bian)器、旁路(lu)(lu)和(he)工(gong)頻(pin)(pin)升壓(ya)隔離變(bian)壓(ya)器組(zu)成(cheng)。因其整(zheng)流(liu)器和(he)變(bian)壓(ya)器工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)頻(pin)(pin)率(lv)(lv)均為工(gong)頻(pin)(pin)50Hz,顧名思(si)義叫工(gong)頻(pin)(pin)UPS。高(gao)頻(pin)(pin)機(ji)(ji)通常(chang)由(you)IGBT高(gao)頻(pin)(pin)整(zheng)流(liu)器、電池(chi)變(bian)換(huan)器、逆變(bian)器和(he)旁路(lu)(lu)組(zu)成(cheng)。IGBT可以(yi)通過控制加在門(men)極的(de)(de)驅動來控制其開通與關(guan)斷,IGBT整(zheng)流(liu)器開關(guan)頻(pin)(pin)率(lv)(lv)通常(chang)在幾千赫到幾十千赫,甚至高(gao)達(da)上(shang)百千赫,遠遠高(gao)于(yu)工(gong)頻(pin)(pin)機(ji)(ji),因此稱為高(gao)頻(pin)(pin)UPS。


  在(zai)工頻UPS電(dian)(dian)路(lu)中,主路(lu)三相交(jiao)流(liu)輸(shu)入經過(guo)(guo)換相電(dian)(dian)感,接到(dao)三個(ge)SCR橋臂組成(cheng)的整(zheng)流(liu)器(qi)之后變(bian)換成(cheng)直(zhi)流(liu)電(dian)(dian)壓(ya),通過(guo)(guo)控(kong)制整(zheng)流(liu)橋SCR的導(dao)通角來調節(jie)輸(shu)出(chu)直(zhi)流(liu)電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)值。由(you)于(yu)SCR屬于(yu)半控(kong)器(qi)件,控(kong)制系統只能控(kong)制開(kai)通點(dian),一旦(dan)SCR導(dao)通之后,即(ji)使(shi)門極驅動撤(che)消,也(ye)無法關(guan)斷(duan),只有(you)等(deng)到(dao)其電(dian)(dian)流(liu)為零之后才能自然關(guan)斷(duan),所(suo)以其開(kai)通和關(guan)斷(duan)均是基于(yu)一個(ge)工頻周期,不(bu)存在(zai)高頻的開(kai)通和關(guan)斷(duan)控(kong)制。由(you)于(yu)SCR整(zheng)流(liu)器(qi)屬于(yu)降壓(ya)整(zheng)流(liu),所(suo)以直(zhi)流(liu)母線電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)經逆變(bian)輸(shu)出(chu)的交(jiao)流(liu)電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)比(bi)輸(shu)入交(jiao)流(liu)電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)低,要使(shi)輸(shu)出(chu)相電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)能夠得(de)到(dao)恒定的220V電(dian)(dian)壓(ya),就(jiu)必須在(zai)逆變(bian)輸(shu)出(chu)增加升壓(ya)隔離變(bian)壓(ya)器(qi)。

  相比(bi)而言(yan),高(gao)(gao)頻UPS整流屬于(yu)升(sheng)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)整流,其(qi)輸出直(zhi)流母(mu)(mu)線(xian)的(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)比(bi)輸入(ru)線(xian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)的(de)(de)峰值高(gao)(gao),一(yi)般(ban)典型值為800V左右,如果電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)直(zhi)接掛接母(mu)(mu)線(xian),所需(xu)要(yao)(yao)的(de)(de)標(biao)配(pei)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)節(jie)數(shu)需(xu)要(yao)(yao)67節(jie),這(zhe)樣(yang)給實(shi)際(ji)應(ying)用帶(dai)來極大的(de)(de)限制。因此一(yi)般(ban)高(gao)(gao)頻UPS會單獨配(pei)置一(yi)個電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)變(bian)(bian)(bian)換(huan)器(qi),市(shi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)正常的(de)(de)時候電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)變(bian)(bian)(bian)換(huan)器(qi)把(ba)800V的(de)(de)母(mu)(mu)線(xian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)降到電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)組(zu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya);市(shi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)故障或超限時,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)變(bian)(bian)(bian)換(huan)器(qi)把(ba)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)組(zu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)升(sheng)高(gao)(gao)到800V的(de)(de)母(mu)(mu)線(xian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)。由于(yu)高(gao)(gao)頻機(ji)母(mu)(mu)線(xian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)為800V左右,所以逆變(bian)(bian)(bian)器(qi)輸出相電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)可以直(zhi)接達到220V,逆變(bian)(bian)(bian)器(qi)之后就不(bu)再需(xu)要(yao)(yao)升(sheng)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)變(bian)(bian)(bian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)器(qi)。因此,有(you)無隔離變(bian)(bian)(bian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)器(qi)是工頻機(ji)與高(gao)(gao)頻機(ji)在結構(gou)上的(de)(de)主要(yao)(yao)區別。


  UPS輸出隔離變壓器的作用

  隔離(li)變(bian)壓(ya)器是利用電磁(ci)感應原理(li),對配電或(huo)信號進行電氣隔離(li)的(de)裝(zhuang)置。隔離(li)變(bian)壓(ya)器在UPS中通(tong)常被設(she)計在逆變(bian)器的(de)輸(shu)出端,可以起到增(zeng)加UPS性能改善(shan)負載端供電質量的(de)作用。通(tong)常,UPS的(de)輸(shu)出隔離(li)變(bian)壓(ya)器有以下四大優點:

  降低零地電壓,優化UPS末端供電網絡

  UPS的逆變(bian)(bian)輸(shu)出安(an)裝(zhuang)隔離變(bian)(bian)壓器(qi)(qi)可(ke)(ke)以隔離輸(shu)入和輸(shu)出之間的電(dian)氣連接,從而有(you)效地降低輸(shu)出的零(ling)地電(dian)壓。由于隔離變(bian)(bian)壓器(qi)(qi)的副邊繞組采用Y型接法,中性點接地后產生新的零(ling)線,從而達(da)到降低零(ling)地電(dian)壓的目的。事(shi)實上,HP、IBM、SUN的小型機因(yin)為要保證精密(mi)的計(ji)算能(neng)力與高(gao)(gao)可(ke)(ke)靠的數據處理傳輸(shu)能(neng)力,都會對零(ling)地電(dian)壓有(you)極(ji)高(gao)(gao)的要求,加裝(zhuang)隔離變(bian)(bian)壓器(qi)(qi)可(ke)(ke)以徹底(di)解決(jue)因(yin)為零(ling)地電(dian)壓偏(pian)高(gao)(gao)所(suo)造(zao)成的一些問題。


  濾除負載端諧波,提高供電質量

  隔(ge)離變(bian)(bian)壓器(qi)本身具(ju)有電(dian)感(gan)特性,輸出隔(ge)離變(bian)(bian)壓器(qi)可(ke)以(yi)濾除負載端的大量低次諧(xie)波(bo),減(jian)少高(gao)頻(pin)*,并可(ke)以(yi)使高(gao)次諧(xie)波(bo)大幅度衰減(jian)。采(cai)用電(dian)源隔(ge)離變(bian)(bian)壓器(qi),可(ke)以(yi)有效(xiao)地抑制竄入交流電(dian)源中的噪聲*,提高(gao)設備的電(dian)磁兼容性。

  增強過載短路保護能力,保護負載與UPS主機

  由于其自身(shen)的(de)特性,隔離變(bian)壓(ya)器(qi)是UPS中工作(zuo)(zuo)最為穩(wen)定的(de)器(qi)件。UPS在正常工作(zuo)(zuo)過(guo)程中,如果遇到大的(de)短路電(dian)流,變(bian)壓(ya)器(qi)會產生反向電(dian)動勢(shi),延緩短路電(dian)流對(dui)負載以及逆變(bian)器(qi)的(de)沖(chong)擊破壞,具(ju)有保護(hu)負載與UPS主機的(de)作(zuo)(zuo)用。


  “通交流阻直流”,UPS故障時保護負載

  高(gao)額(e)UPS的AC/DC變(bian)換部(bu)分采用高(gao)頻化設計,提(ti)高(gao)了(le)UPS的輸入功(gong)率因數(shu)(0.98以上(shang))及輸入電壓范圍,DC/AC逆(ni)變(bian)部(bu)分高(gao)頻化減少了(le)輸出濾(lv)波電感的體積,功(gong)率密(mi)度大。由于無(wu)輸出隔離(li)變(bian)壓器(qi)(qi),一(yi)旦(dan)逆(ni)變(bian)器(qi)(qi)橋臂的IGBT被擊(ji)穿短路,BUS母線直(zhi)流高(gao)電壓將加到(dao)負(fu)載(zai)上(shang),危及負(fu)載(zai)的安全。輸出隔離(li)變(bian)壓器(qi)(qi)具有“通交(jiao)流阻(zu)直(zhi)流”的能(neng)力,可以解(jie)決此類(lei)問題,在(zai)UPS發生故障時能(neng)夠使(shi)負(fu)載(zai)安全運行。

  工頻機和高頻機的性能對比

  在可靠性方面,工頻機要優于高頻機

  工(gong)(gong)頻機(ji)采(cai)用(yong)(yong)晶閘管(guan)(SCR)整(zheng)(zheng)流(liu)(liu)器(qi)(qi),該(gai)技術經過半(ban)個多(duo)世紀的發展(zhan)和革新,已經非常成熟,其(qi)抗電(dian)流(liu)(liu)沖擊能力(li)非常強(qiang)。由(you)于SCR屬于半(ban)控器(qi)(qi)件,不(bu)會出(chu)現直(zhi)通、誤觸發等故(gu)障。相比而言,高頻機(ji)采(cai)用(yong)(yong)的IGBT高頻整(zheng)(zheng)流(liu)(liu)器(qi)(qi)雖然(ran)開關頻率(lv)較高,但是(shi)IGBT工(gong)(gong)作時(shi)有嚴(yan)格的電(dian)壓、電(dian)流(liu)(liu)工(gong)(gong)作區域,抗沖擊能力(li)較低(di)。因此(ci)在(zai)總體可靠性方(fang)面,IGBT整(zheng)(zheng)流(liu)(liu)器(qi)(qi)比SCR整(zheng)(zheng)流(liu)(liu)器(qi)(qi)低(di)。


  在環境適應性方面,高頻機要優于工頻機

  高頻機是以微處理(li)器作為處理(li)控制(zhi)中(zhong)心,將(jiang)繁雜的(de)硬件模(mo)擬電路燒(shao)錄于微處理(li)器中(zhong),以軟(ruan)件程序的(de)方式來控制(zhi)UPS的(de)運(yun)行(xing)。因此,體積(ji)、重(zhong)量(liang)等方面都有明顯的(de)降(jiang)低,噪音也較(jiao)小,對空間、環境影響小,因此比較(jiao)適合(he)于對可靠性要求不太苛(ke)刻的(de)辦公(gong)場(chang)所。正因為如此,許多廠家的(de)中(zhong)小功率UPS普(pu)遍推出了高頻機。

  在負載對零地電壓的要求方面,工頻機要優于高頻機

  大(da)(da)功率三相(xiang)高頻機(ji)(ji)零(ling)(ling)線(xian)會引入(ru)整(zheng)流(liu)器(qi)(qi)并作(zuo)為正負(fu)母(mu)線(xian)的(de)中性點,這種結(jie)構就不可(ke)(ke)避免地(di)造成整(zheng)流(liu)器(qi)(qi)和逆變器(qi)(qi)高頻諧波耦合在(zai)(zai)零(ling)(ling)線(xian)上,抬(tai)升零(ling)(ling)地(di)電(dian)(dian)壓(ya),造成負(fu)載端零(ling)(ling)地(di)電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)抬(tai)高,很難滿足IBM、HP等服務器(qi)(qi)廠家對零(ling)(ling)地(di)電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)小于1V的(de)場地(di)需(xu)求。另(ling)外,在(zai)(zai)市電(dian)(dian)和發電(dian)(dian)機(ji)(ji)切換時,高頻機(ji)(ji)往(wang)往(wang)因零(ling)(ling)線(xian)缺失而必須(xu)轉旁(pang)路(lu)工(gong)作(zuo),在(zai)(zai)特定工(gong)況下可(ke)(ke)能造成負(fu)載閃(shan)斷(duan)的(de)重大(da)(da)故障。工(gong)頻機(ji)(ji)因整(zheng)流(liu)器(qi)(qi)不需(xu)要零(ling)(ling)線(xian)參與工(gong)作(zuo),在(zai)(zai)零(ling)(ling)線(xian)斷(duan)開時,UPS可(ke)(ke)以(yi)保持正常供電(dian)(dian)。

  結束語

  從(cong)結構(gou)上(shang)講,工頻(pin)(pin)機(ji)UPS和(he)高(gao)頻(pin)(pin)機(ji)UPS的(de)(de)(de)差異(yi)主要表現在(zai)(zai)隔(ge)離變壓(ya)器上(shang),而工頻(pin)(pin)機(ji)對(dui)隔(ge)離變壓(ya)器的(de)(de)(de)使(shi)用(yong)(yong),在(zai)(zai)很大(da)程(cheng)度上(shang)提升(sheng)了UPS的(de)(de)(de)可靠性。從(cong)綜合性能方面(mian)來(lai)講,工頻(pin)(pin)機(ji)和(he)高(gao)頻(pin)(pin)機(ji)則各有優劣,至(zhi)少在(zai)(zai)當前,不(bu)存在(zai)(zai)誰(shui)取代誰(shui)的(de)(de)(de)問題。用(yong)(yong)戶(hu)在(zai)(zai)選購設備(bei)的(de)(de)(de)時候應(ying)(ying)當立足于自身的(de)(de)(de)實際需(xu)要,而不(bu)是盲目跟從(cong)。比如,用(yong)(yong)戶(hu)要建設中(zhong)(zhong)大(da)型的(de)(de)(de)數據中(zhong)(zhong)心,那么對(dui)可靠性和(he)穩定性的(de)(de)(de)要求就(jiu)應(ying)(ying)當放(fang)在(zai)(zai)第一(yi)位,大(da)功(gong)率的(de)(de)(de)工頻(pin)(pin)機(ji)UPS就(jiu)應(ying)(ying)當是首選;如果(guo)是一(yi)般的(de)(de)(de)辦公場所應(ying)(ying)用(yong)(yong),或者(zhe)主要考慮到設備(bei)對(dui)空間的(de)(de)(de)占用(yong)(yong),則可以采用(yong)(yong)高(gao)頻(pin)(pin)機(ji)UPS。

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