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車載充電機工作原理和過程

2020/2/6 13:27:59??????點擊:

充(chong)(chong)電(dian)機是(shi)采用高頻(pin)電(dian)源技術,運用先(xian)進(jin)的智能(neng)動態調整充(chong)(chong)電(dian)技術。它(ta)采用恒(heng)流/恒(heng)壓/小(xiao)恒(heng)流智能(neng)三個階段充(chong)(chong)電(dian)方(fang)式,具有充(chong)(chong)電(dian)效率高,操(cao)作簡(jian)單,重(zhong)量輕,體積小(xiao)等特(te)點。充(chong)(chong)電(dian)機是(shi)我國廣泛在(zai)華北地區,機器內部電(dian)力器件(jian)(如變壓器、電(dian)感、電(dian)容器等)都較大(da),一(yi)般在(zai)帶載較大(da)運行時存在(zai)較小(xiao)噪聲,但該機型(xing)在(zai)惡劣的電(dian)網環境條件(jian)中耐抗性(xing)(xing)能(neng)較強(qiang),可靠(kao)性(xing)(xing)及穩定性(xing)(xing)均(jun)比高頻(pin)機強(qiang)。

??1 電動汽(qi)車充(chong)電機種類(lei)

??電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)汽(qi)車充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji)(ji)(ji),按(an)照是(shi)否固定在汽(qi)車上,劃分(fen)(fen)為車載(zai)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji)(ji)(ji)和非車載(zai)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji)(ji)(ji)兩(liang)類。非車載(zai)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji)(ji)(ji)又(you)分(fen)(fen)成交流(liu)(liu)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)樁(zhuang)(zhuang)(zhuang)和直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)樁(zhuang)(zhuang)(zhuang)兩(liang)種(zhong)(zhong)。車載(zai)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji)(ji)(ji),以交流(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源作為輸入(ru),輸出為直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu),直(zhi)(zhi)接(jie)(jie)(jie)給(gei)(gei)動(dong)力電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian);非車載(zai)直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji)(ji)(ji),交流(liu)(liu)輸入(ru),直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)輸出,可(ke)以直(zhi)(zhi)接(jie)(jie)(jie)給(gei)(gei)動(dong)力電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。前者(zhe)功率(lv)較小(xiao),后者(zhe)較大(da)。另(ling)外一種(zhong)(zhong),交流(liu)(liu)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)樁(zhuang)(zhuang)(zhuang),交流(liu)(liu)作為輸入(ru),輸出也是(shi)交流(liu)(liu),不(bu)能(neng)直(zhi)(zhi)接(jie)(jie)(jie)給(gei)(gei)動(dong)力電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),需要(yao)連接(jie)(jie)(jie)車載(zai)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji)(ji)(ji),進行交直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)轉換,才能(neng)實現充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。交流(liu)(liu)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)樁(zhuang)(zhuang)(zhuang)內部(bu)比較簡單,基本功能(neng)就是(shi)將電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)網交流(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)引出到方便電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)汽(qi)車充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)的位置,并提供一個標準的充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)接(jie)(jie)(jie)口。受到車載(zai)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji)(ji)(ji)能(neng)力的限制(zhi),交流(liu)(liu)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)樁(zhuang)(zhuang)(zhuang)功率(lv)一般也不(bu)需要(yao)太大(da)。

??2 車載充電(dian)機在電(dian)動汽車上的位置

??車(che)載充(chong)(chong)電(dian)機作為電(dian)動汽(qi)車(che)電(dian)氣(qi)系統的一(yi)部分(fen),被固(gu)定在底盤上(shang)。車(che)載充(chong)(chong)電(dian)機的輸入端(duan),以標(biao)準充(chong)(chong)電(dian)接(jie)口的形(xing)式固(gu)定在車(che)體(ti)上(shang),用于連接(jie)外部電(dian)源(yuan)。車(che)載充(chong)(chong)電(dian)機的輸出端(duan),直(zhi)接(jie)連接(jie)動力(li)電(dian)池(chi)包(bao)慢充(chong)(chong)電(dian)接(jie)口。在電(dian)動汽(qi)車(che)CAN總線通訊拓撲(pu)結構中,車(che)載充(chong)(chong)電(dian)機作為一(yi)個節點,掛在CAN總線上(shang),通過CAN與整車(che)控制器交換數據。

??3 充電模(mo)式

??充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)模式指充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)過程(cheng)中(zhong),電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)、電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓以怎樣的(de)(de)規定性提供給電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)。充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)模式,對充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)效率(lv)、電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)壽命都會產生(sheng)顯著(zhu)影響。主(zhu)要的(de)(de)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)模式有(you)恒(heng)流(liu)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),恒(heng)壓充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),先(xian)恒(heng)流(liu)后(hou)恒(heng)壓充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),同向(xiang)脈沖(chong)(chong)(chong)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)和正(zheng)負脈沖(chong)(chong)(chong)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)幾類。在基本類型(xing)的(de)(de)基礎(chu)上(shang),一直有(you)研(yan)究人員在探索更(geng)為(wei)合理高效的(de)(de)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)方式。比如,結合恒(heng)流(liu)恒(heng)壓充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),中(zhong)間采用(yong)正(zheng)負脈沖(chong)(chong)(chong)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)方式。在較長時間脈沖(chong)(chong)(chong)正(zheng)向(xiang)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)以后(hou),夾雜(za)短暫的(de)(de)負向(xiang)脈沖(chong)(chong)(chong)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),用(yong)以消(xiao)除正(zheng)向(xiang)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)過程(cheng)中(zhong)產生(sheng)的(de)(de)極化現象,降低回路電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻,進而提高了充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)效率(lv),同時對降低充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)溫(wen)度也(ye)有(you)正(zheng)向(xiang)作用(yong)。

??4 充電截止條件

??充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)模(mo)式另一(yi)個被(bei)討論(lun)最多的(de)(de)(de)點,是充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)截(jie)(jie)(jie)止條件(jian)。可(ke)以(yi)(yi)被(bei)用作(zuo)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)截(jie)(jie)(jie)止的(de)(de)(de)判(pan)據(ju),常見的(de)(de)(de)有電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池包總(zong)(zong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya),電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池單體(ti)最高(gao)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya),充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)。電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池包總(zong)(zong)體(ti)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)作(zuo)為(wei)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)截(jie)(jie)(jie)止條件(jian):在(zai)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)過(guo)程后期,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池包總(zong)(zong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)隨著充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)過(guo)程的(de)(de)(de)進行(xing)而(er)逐漸提(ti)高(gao),達(da)到某一(yi)個設定(ding)閾(yu)值后,充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)過(guo)程結(jie)束。在(zai)這個過(guo)程中(zhong),如果(guo)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)截(jie)(jie)(jie)止總(zong)(zong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)的(de)(de)(de)設置(zhi)數(shu)值比(bi)較高(gao),而(er)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池包中(zhong)單體(ti)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)芯的(de)(de)(de)一(yi)致性又不是特別好(hao),可(ke)能出現單體(ti)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)已(yi)經到了報警閾(yu)值,而(er)總(zong)(zong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)依然(ran)沒(mei)有觸及截(jie)(jie)(jie)止值的(de)(de)(de)情況。單體(ti)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池最高(gao)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)作(zuo)為(wei)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)截(jie)(jie)(jie)止條件(jian):把電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池管理(li)系統監測到的(de)(de)(de)單體(ti)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)芯電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)中(zhong)最大值作(zuo)為(wei)判(pan)據(ju),當電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)達(da)到設定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)截(jie)(jie)(jie)止電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)值時,充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)過(guo)程結(jie)束。由于單體(ti)之間不一(yi)致性的(de)(de)(de)存(cun)在(zai),如果(guo)沒(mei)有合理(li)的(de)(de)(de)均衡措施(shi),必然(ran)存(cun)在(zai)著一(yi)批電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)芯,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)還沒(mei)有達(da)到滿(man)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)。充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)作(zuo)為(wei)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)截(jie)(jie)(jie)止條件(jian):接(jie)近滿(man)充(chong)狀態(tai),電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)恒定(ding),電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)則逐漸減(jian)小(xiao),當電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)減(jian)小(xiao)到設定(ding)閾(yu)值以(yi)(yi)下,充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)過(guo)程結(jie)束。

??5 車載充電機工(gong)作原理

??控(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)單元(yuan),采樣輸(shu)出(chu)(chu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)和(he)(he)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya),經過處理(li)后將(jiang)實時(shi)值(zhi)傳(chuan)遞給(gei)(gei)PID(一種閉(bi)環自動控(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)技術(shu),是比(bi)例、積分、微分控(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)器(qi)(qi)的(de)簡稱(cheng))控(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)回(hui)(hui)路(lu),由控(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)器(qi)(qi)比(bi)較測量(liang)值(zhi)與(yu)期望值(zhi)之間(jian)的(de)差距,再將(jiang)調節要求傳(chuan)遞給(gei)(gei)PWM回(hui)(hui)路(lu)(PWM脈沖(chong)寬度(du)調制(zhi)技術(shu)),用(yong)脈沖(chong)寬度(du)變化去控(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)高(gao)壓(ya)回(hui)(hui)路(lu)中(zhong)功率(lv)器(qi)(qi)件的(de)開閉(bi)時(shi)間(jian)的(de)長短,最終實現輸(shu)出(chu)(chu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)和(he)(he)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)盡量(liang)接(jie)近于主控(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)統(tong)要求的(de)數值(zhi)。低壓(ya)輔助單元(yuan),是一個(ge)標準低壓(ya)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan),輸(shu)出(chu)(chu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)12V或者24V,用(yong)于充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)期間(jian),給(gei)(gei)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動汽車(che)上的(de)用(yong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)供電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),比(bi)如電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池管理(li)系(xi)(xi)統(tong)、熱管理(li)系(xi)(xi)統(tong)、汽車(che)儀表等。功率(lv)單元(yuan),一般包括輸(shu)入(ru)整流(liu)(liu),逆變電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)和(he)(he)輸(shu)出(chu)(chu)整流(liu)(liu)3個(ge)部分,將(jiang)輸(shu)入(ru)的(de)工頻交(jiao)流(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)轉化成適合動力電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池系(xi)(xi)統(tong)能夠接(jie)受的(de)適當(dang)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)的(de)直流(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。輸(shu)出(chu)(chu)端口,包括低壓(ya)輔助電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)正負(fu)極兩個(ge)pin口,高(gao)壓(ya)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)回(hui)(hui)路(lu)正負(fu)極兩個(ge)pin口,底盤地,通訊(xun)線CANH和(he)(he)CANL(還可以有CAN屏(ping)蔽),充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)請(qing)(qing)求信(xin)(xin)號(hao)線。其中(zhong),高(gao)壓(ya)連個(ge)pin口與(yu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池包相連;充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)請(qing)(qing)求信(xin)(xin)號(hao)線用(yong)于,充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機的(de)輸(shu)入(ru)端口與(yu)外(wai)部電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)之間(jian)完(wan)成充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)連接(jie)確(que)認以后,通過“充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)請(qing)(qing)求信(xin)(xin)號(hao)”線向車(che)輛控(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)器(qi)(qi)發送充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)請(qing)(qing)求信(xin)(xin)號(hao),同時(shi)或延時(shi)一小段(duan)時(shi)間(jian)后,用(yong)低壓(ya)輔助電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)給(gei)(gei)整車(che)供電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。

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