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車載充電機工作原理和過程

2020/2/6 13:27:59??????點擊:

充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)機是采用高(gao)頻電(dian)(dian)源(yuan)技(ji)術(shu),運用先(xian)進的(de)(de)智能(neng)動態調整充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)技(ji)術(shu)。它采用恒流/恒壓/小(xiao)恒流智能(neng)三個(ge)階段(duan)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)方式,具有充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)效率高(gao),操作簡(jian)單,重量輕,體(ti)積小(xiao)等(deng)(deng)特點。充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)機是我國廣泛在(zai)(zai)華北地區(qu),機器(qi)(qi)內部電(dian)(dian)力器(qi)(qi)件(jian)(如變壓器(qi)(qi)、電(dian)(dian)感(gan)、電(dian)(dian)容(rong)器(qi)(qi)等(deng)(deng))都(dou)較大,一般在(zai)(zai)帶載較大運行時存在(zai)(zai)較小(xiao)噪聲,但該(gai)機型在(zai)(zai)惡劣的(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)網環境條(tiao)件(jian)中(zhong)耐抗性能(neng)較強,可靠性及穩(wen)定性均比(bi)高(gao)頻機強。

??1 電(dian)動(dong)汽(qi)車充電(dian)機種(zhong)類

??電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動汽(qi)(qi)車(che)(che)(che)(che)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji),按照是(shi)否(fou)固定在汽(qi)(qi)車(che)(che)(che)(che)上,劃分為車(che)(che)(che)(che)載(zai)(zai)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji)和非(fei)車(che)(che)(che)(che)載(zai)(zai)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji)兩類(lei)。非(fei)車(che)(che)(che)(che)載(zai)(zai)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji)又(you)分成交(jiao)(jiao)流(liu)(liu)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)樁和直流(liu)(liu)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)樁兩種。車(che)(che)(che)(che)載(zai)(zai)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji),以交(jiao)(jiao)流(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源作為輸(shu)入,輸(shu)出(chu)為直流(liu)(liu),直接給動力(li)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian);非(fei)車(che)(che)(che)(che)載(zai)(zai)直流(liu)(liu)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji),交(jiao)(jiao)流(liu)(liu)輸(shu)入,直流(liu)(liu)輸(shu)出(chu),可以直接給動力(li)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。前者功率(lv)較(jiao)(jiao)小,后者較(jiao)(jiao)大。另外一種,交(jiao)(jiao)流(liu)(liu)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)樁,交(jiao)(jiao)流(liu)(liu)作為輸(shu)入,輸(shu)出(chu)也是(shi)交(jiao)(jiao)流(liu)(liu),不(bu)能直接給動力(li)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),需(xu)要連接車(che)(che)(che)(che)載(zai)(zai)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji),進行交(jiao)(jiao)直流(liu)(liu)轉換,才能實(shi)現充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。交(jiao)(jiao)流(liu)(liu)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)樁內部比較(jiao)(jiao)簡單(dan),基本(ben)功能就是(shi)將電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)網(wang)交(jiao)(jiao)流(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)引出(chu)到(dao)方便電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動汽(qi)(qi)車(che)(che)(che)(che)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)的位(wei)置,并提供一個標準的充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)接口。受(shou)到(dao)車(che)(che)(che)(che)載(zai)(zai)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji)能力(li)的限制(zhi),交(jiao)(jiao)流(liu)(liu)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)樁功率(lv)一般也不(bu)需(xu)要太大。

??2 車載充電(dian)機在電(dian)動汽(qi)車上(shang)的位置

??車(che)(che)(che)載(zai)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)機(ji)作為電(dian)(dian)動(dong)(dong)汽(qi)車(che)(che)(che)電(dian)(dian)氣系(xi)統的(de)一(yi)部分,被固(gu)定在(zai)(zai)底盤上。車(che)(che)(che)載(zai)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)機(ji)的(de)輸入端,以標準(zhun)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)接(jie)口(kou)的(de)形式固(gu)定在(zai)(zai)車(che)(che)(che)體(ti)上,用于連接(jie)外部電(dian)(dian)源。車(che)(che)(che)載(zai)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)機(ji)的(de)輸出(chu)端,直接(jie)連接(jie)動(dong)(dong)力電(dian)(dian)池包慢充(chong)電(dian)(dian)接(jie)口(kou)。在(zai)(zai)電(dian)(dian)動(dong)(dong)汽(qi)車(che)(che)(che)CAN總線通(tong)訊拓撲結構(gou)中,車(che)(che)(che)載(zai)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)機(ji)作為一(yi)個節點,掛在(zai)(zai)CAN總線上,通(tong)過CAN與(yu)整(zheng)車(che)(che)(che)控制器交換(huan)數據。

??3 充電模式

??充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)模式(shi)指充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)過(guo)程中(zhong)(zhong),電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流、電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)以怎(zen)樣的(de)規定性(xing)提(ti)(ti)供給電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池。充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)模式(shi),對充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)效率、電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池壽命都會產(chan)生顯(xian)著影響。主要的(de)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)模式(shi)有恒流充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),恒壓(ya)(ya)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),先恒流后(hou)恒壓(ya)(ya)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),同(tong)向(xiang)(xiang)脈沖(chong)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)和正(zheng)負脈沖(chong)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)幾類(lei)。在基本類(lei)型的(de)基礎上,一(yi)直有研究人員在探(tan)索更為合(he)理高(gao)效的(de)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)方(fang)式(shi)。比如(ru),結(jie)合(he)恒流恒壓(ya)(ya)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),中(zhong)(zhong)間采用(yong)正(zheng)負脈沖(chong)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)方(fang)式(shi)。在較長(chang)時(shi)間脈沖(chong)正(zheng)向(xiang)(xiang)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)以后(hou),夾雜短暫的(de)負向(xiang)(xiang)脈沖(chong)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),用(yong)以消除正(zheng)向(xiang)(xiang)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)過(guo)程中(zhong)(zhong)產(chan)生的(de)極(ji)化(hua)現象,降低回路電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻(zu),進而提(ti)(ti)高(gao)了充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)效率,同(tong)時(shi)對降低充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)溫度也有正(zheng)向(xiang)(xiang)作(zuo)用(yong)。

??4 充(chong)電截止條件

??充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)模式另一(yi)(yi)個被(bei)討論最(zui)多(duo)的(de)(de)(de)點,是(shi)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)截(jie)止(zhi)(zhi)條(tiao)件(jian)。可以被(bei)用作(zuo)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)截(jie)止(zhi)(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)判據,常見的(de)(de)(de)有(you)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)包(bao)總(zong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya),電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)單體(ti)最(zui)高(gao)(gao)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya),充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)。電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)包(bao)總(zong)體(ti)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)作(zuo)為充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)截(jie)止(zhi)(zhi)條(tiao)件(jian):在充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)過(guo)程后(hou)期(qi),電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)包(bao)總(zong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)隨著充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)過(guo)程的(de)(de)(de)進行而逐漸(jian)提高(gao)(gao),達到(dao)某一(yi)(yi)個設(she)定(ding)閾(yu)值(zhi)后(hou),充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)過(guo)程結束(shu)。在這個過(guo)程中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),如(ru)果(guo)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)截(jie)止(zhi)(zhi)總(zong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)的(de)(de)(de)設(she)置數值(zhi)比較高(gao)(gao),而電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)包(bao)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)單體(ti)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)芯(xin)的(de)(de)(de)一(yi)(yi)致性又不(bu)是(shi)特別好,可能出現單體(ti)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)已經到(dao)了報警閾(yu)值(zhi),而總(zong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)依然(ran)沒有(you)觸及(ji)截(jie)止(zhi)(zhi)值(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)情況(kuang)。單體(ti)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)最(zui)高(gao)(gao)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)作(zuo)為充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)截(jie)止(zhi)(zhi)條(tiao)件(jian):把電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)管理系統監測(ce)到(dao)的(de)(de)(de)單體(ti)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)芯(xin)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)最(zui)大值(zhi)作(zuo)為判據,當電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)達到(dao)設(she)定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)截(jie)止(zhi)(zhi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)值(zhi)時,充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)過(guo)程結束(shu)。由于單體(ti)之間不(bu)一(yi)(yi)致性的(de)(de)(de)存在,如(ru)果(guo)沒有(you)合(he)理的(de)(de)(de)均衡措施,必然(ran)存在著一(yi)(yi)批電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)芯(xin),電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)還沒有(you)達到(dao)滿電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)。充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)作(zuo)為充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)截(jie)止(zhi)(zhi)條(tiao)件(jian):接近滿充(chong)(chong)狀態,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)恒定(ding),電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)則逐漸(jian)減(jian)小,當電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)減(jian)小到(dao)設(she)定(ding)閾(yu)值(zhi)以下,充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)過(guo)程結束(shu)。

??5 車載充(chong)電機工作原理

??控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)單(dan)元,采樣輸出電(dian)(dian)流(liu)和電(dian)(dian)壓(ya),經過處(chu)理(li)后將實(shi)(shi)時值(zhi)(zhi)傳(chuan)(chuan)遞給(gei)PID(一(yi)種閉環(huan)自動控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)技術(shu),是比例、積分、微分控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)器(qi)(qi)(qi)的(de)簡稱(cheng))控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)回(hui)路(lu)(lu),由控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)器(qi)(qi)(qi)比較測量值(zhi)(zhi)與期(qi)望值(zhi)(zhi)之間的(de)差距,再將調(diao)(diao)節要(yao)求(qiu)傳(chuan)(chuan)遞給(gei)PWM回(hui)路(lu)(lu)(PWM脈(mo)沖(chong)寬(kuan)度(du)調(diao)(diao)制(zhi)(zhi)技術(shu)),用脈(mo)沖(chong)寬(kuan)度(du)變(bian)化去控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)高壓(ya)回(hui)路(lu)(lu)中(zhong)(zhong)功率器(qi)(qi)(qi)件的(de)開閉時間的(de)長短,最終實(shi)(shi)現(xian)輸出電(dian)(dian)流(liu)和電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)盡量接近于(yu)主控(kong)(kong)系統要(yao)求(qiu)的(de)數值(zhi)(zhi)。低(di)壓(ya)輔助單(dan)元,是一(yi)個標準低(di)壓(ya)電(dian)(dian)源(yuan),輸出電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)12V或者24V,用于(yu)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)期(qi)間,給(gei)電(dian)(dian)動汽(qi)車上的(de)用電(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)供電(dian)(dian),比如電(dian)(dian)池管(guan)理(li)系統、熱管(guan)理(li)系統、汽(qi)車儀表等。功率單(dan)元,一(yi)般包括輸入(ru)整流(liu),逆(ni)變(bian)電(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)和輸出整流(liu)3個部(bu)分,將輸入(ru)的(de)工頻交流(liu)電(dian)(dian)轉化成(cheng)適合動力電(dian)(dian)池系統能夠接受的(de)適當電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)的(de)直流(liu)電(dian)(dian)。輸出端(duan)口,包括低(di)壓(ya)輔助電(dian)(dian)源(yuan)正負極(ji)兩個pin口,高壓(ya)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)回(hui)路(lu)(lu)正負極(ji)兩個pin口,底盤地(di),通(tong)訊線CANH和CANL(還可以有CAN屏蔽(bi)),充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)請(qing)求(qiu)信(xin)號線。其中(zhong)(zhong),高壓(ya)連個pin口與電(dian)(dian)池包相連;充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)請(qing)求(qiu)信(xin)號線用于(yu),充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)機的(de)輸入(ru)端(duan)口與外部(bu)電(dian)(dian)源(yuan)之間完(wan)成(cheng)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)連接確認以后,通(tong)過“充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)請(qing)求(qiu)信(xin)號”線向車輛控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)器(qi)(qi)(qi)發(fa)送充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)請(qing)求(qiu)信(xin)號,同時或延時一(yi)小段時間后,用低(di)壓(ya)輔助電(dian)(dian)源(yuan)給(gei)整車供電(dian)(dian)。

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