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車載充電機工作原理和過程

2020/2/6 13:27:59??????點擊:

充(chong)電(dian)(dian)機是采用高(gao)頻電(dian)(dian)源技(ji)術(shu),運用先(xian)進的智(zhi)能動態調整充(chong)電(dian)(dian)技(ji)術(shu)。它采用恒(heng)流(liu)/恒(heng)壓(ya)/小恒(heng)流(liu)智(zhi)能三個階段(duan)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)方式,具(ju)有充(chong)電(dian)(dian)效率(lv)高(gao),操作簡單,重量輕(qing),體積小等特點。充(chong)電(dian)(dian)機是我國廣(guang)泛在華北地區,機器(qi)內(nei)部電(dian)(dian)力器(qi)件(jian)(如變壓(ya)器(qi)、電(dian)(dian)感、電(dian)(dian)容器(qi)等)都較(jiao)(jiao)大(da)(da),一般(ban)在帶載較(jiao)(jiao)大(da)(da)運行時存在較(jiao)(jiao)小噪(zao)聲,但(dan)該(gai)機型在惡劣的電(dian)(dian)網環境條件(jian)中耐(nai)抗性能較(jiao)(jiao)強,可靠(kao)性及穩定性均比高(gao)頻機強。

??1 電動汽(qi)車充電機種類

??電(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)汽(qi)(qi)車(che)(che)(che)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji),按(an)照是否(fou)固(gu)定在汽(qi)(qi)車(che)(che)(che)上(shang),劃分為(wei)車(che)(che)(che)載(zai)(zai)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji)和(he)非車(che)(che)(che)載(zai)(zai)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji)兩類。非車(che)(che)(che)載(zai)(zai)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji)又分成交(jiao)流(liu)(liu)(liu)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)樁(zhuang)和(he)直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)(liu)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)樁(zhuang)兩種。車(che)(che)(che)載(zai)(zai)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji),以交(jiao)流(liu)(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)源作為(wei)輸(shu)入(ru)(ru),輸(shu)出(chu)(chu)為(wei)直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)(liu),直(zhi)(zhi)接給動(dong)力(li)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian);非車(che)(che)(che)載(zai)(zai)直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)(liu)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji),交(jiao)流(liu)(liu)(liu)輸(shu)入(ru)(ru),直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)(liu)輸(shu)出(chu)(chu),可以直(zhi)(zhi)接給動(dong)力(li)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)。前者功(gong)率較小,后者較大。另(ling)外一種,交(jiao)流(liu)(liu)(liu)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)樁(zhuang),交(jiao)流(liu)(liu)(liu)作為(wei)輸(shu)入(ru)(ru),輸(shu)出(chu)(chu)也是交(jiao)流(liu)(liu)(liu),不(bu)能(neng)直(zhi)(zhi)接給動(dong)力(li)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian),需要(yao)連(lian)接車(che)(che)(che)載(zai)(zai)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji),進行交(jiao)直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)(liu)轉換,才能(neng)實現充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)。交(jiao)流(liu)(liu)(liu)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)樁(zhuang)內(nei)部比較簡(jian)單(dan),基本功(gong)能(neng)就是將電(dian)(dian)(dian)網交(jiao)流(liu)(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)引出(chu)(chu)到方便電(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)汽(qi)(qi)車(che)(che)(che)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)的位(wei)置,并提供一個標準的充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)接口。受到車(che)(che)(che)載(zai)(zai)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji)能(neng)力(li)的限制,交(jiao)流(liu)(liu)(liu)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)樁(zhuang)功(gong)率一般也不(bu)需要(yao)太(tai)大。

??2 車載充電(dian)機在(zai)電(dian)動汽車上的位置

??車載(zai)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)機作(zuo)為電(dian)(dian)動汽(qi)車電(dian)(dian)氣系統的(de)(de)一部分,被固定(ding)在(zai)(zai)底盤上。車載(zai)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)機的(de)(de)輸(shu)入端(duan),以標準充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)接(jie)(jie)口(kou)的(de)(de)形式(shi)固定(ding)在(zai)(zai)車體上,用于連接(jie)(jie)外(wai)部電(dian)(dian)源。車載(zai)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)機的(de)(de)輸(shu)出端(duan),直接(jie)(jie)連接(jie)(jie)動力電(dian)(dian)池包慢充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)接(jie)(jie)口(kou)。在(zai)(zai)電(dian)(dian)動汽(qi)車CAN總線通訊拓撲結構中(zhong),車載(zai)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)機作(zuo)為一個(ge)節點,掛(gua)在(zai)(zai)CAN總線上,通過CAN與整車控制(zhi)器(qi)交換數據。

??3 充(chong)電(dian)模式

??充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)模(mo)式(shi)(shi)(shi)指充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)過(guo)程中,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)、電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)以怎樣(yang)的(de)(de)規定(ding)性(xing)提供給(gei)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)。充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)模(mo)式(shi)(shi)(shi),對充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)效率、電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)壽命都會產生顯著(zhu)影響(xiang)。主要的(de)(de)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)模(mo)式(shi)(shi)(shi)有恒(heng)(heng)流(liu)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),恒(heng)(heng)壓(ya)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),先恒(heng)(heng)流(liu)后恒(heng)(heng)壓(ya)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),同向脈(mo)(mo)沖(chong)(chong)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)和正(zheng)負脈(mo)(mo)沖(chong)(chong)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)幾類(lei)。在(zai)基本類(lei)型(xing)的(de)(de)基礎上,一(yi)直有研究(jiu)人員在(zai)探索更為合理高效的(de)(de)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)方(fang)式(shi)(shi)(shi)。比如,結合恒(heng)(heng)流(liu)恒(heng)(heng)壓(ya)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),中間采用正(zheng)負脈(mo)(mo)沖(chong)(chong)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)方(fang)式(shi)(shi)(shi)。在(zai)較長時(shi)間脈(mo)(mo)沖(chong)(chong)正(zheng)向充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)以后,夾(jia)雜短暫的(de)(de)負向脈(mo)(mo)沖(chong)(chong)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),用以消除正(zheng)向充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)過(guo)程中產生的(de)(de)極化(hua)現象(xiang),降低回路(lu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻,進而(er)提高了充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)效率,同時(shi)對降低充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)溫(wen)度也有正(zheng)向作用。

??4 充電截(jie)止條件

??充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)模式另(ling)一個被討(tao)論最多的(de)(de)(de)(de)點,是充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)截止(zhi)條(tiao)件。可(ke)以被用作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)截止(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)判(pan)(pan)據(ju),常(chang)見的(de)(de)(de)(de)有電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)包(bao)總電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)單體(ti)最高(gao)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓,充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流。電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)包(bao)總體(ti)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)為(wei)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)截止(zhi)條(tiao)件:在(zai)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)過程(cheng)后(hou)期,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)包(bao)總電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓隨(sui)著(zhu)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)過程(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)進(jin)行而(er)逐漸提高(gao),達到(dao)(dao)某(mou)一個設(she)定(ding)(ding)閾值后(hou),充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)過程(cheng)結束(shu)(shu)。在(zai)這個過程(cheng)中,如果充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)截止(zhi)總電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓的(de)(de)(de)(de)設(she)置數值比較高(gao),而(er)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)包(bao)中單體(ti)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)芯(xin)(xin)的(de)(de)(de)(de)一致性又(you)不是特別好(hao),可(ke)能出現單體(ti)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓已經到(dao)(dao)了報(bao)警閾值,而(er)總電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓依然沒有觸及截止(zhi)值的(de)(de)(de)(de)情況。單體(ti)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)最高(gao)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)為(wei)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)截止(zhi)條(tiao)件:把(ba)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)管理系統監(jian)測到(dao)(dao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)單體(ti)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)芯(xin)(xin)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓中最大值作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)為(wei)判(pan)(pan)據(ju),當(dang)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓達到(dao)(dao)設(she)定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)截止(zhi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓值時,充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)過程(cheng)結束(shu)(shu)。由于單體(ti)之(zhi)間不一致性的(de)(de)(de)(de)存(cun)在(zai),如果沒有合理的(de)(de)(de)(de)均(jun)衡措施,必然存(cun)在(zai)著(zhu)一批電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)芯(xin)(xin),電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓還沒有達到(dao)(dao)滿電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓。充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)為(wei)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)截止(zhi)條(tiao)件:接(jie)近滿充(chong)(chong)狀態,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓恒定(ding)(ding),電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流則逐漸減小(xiao),當(dang)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流減小(xiao)到(dao)(dao)設(she)定(ding)(ding)閾值以下,充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)過程(cheng)結束(shu)(shu)。

??5 車載充電(dian)機(ji)工作原理

??控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)單元,采樣輸(shu)(shu)出(chu)(chu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)和(he)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya),經(jing)過處理后將(jiang)實時值傳遞給PID(一種(zhong)閉環自動(dong)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)技術,是(shi)比例(li)、積(ji)分、微分控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)器(qi)的簡稱)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)回(hui)(hui)路(lu),由控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)器(qi)比較測量值與期望值之(zhi)間的差(cha)距,再將(jiang)調節(jie)要求傳遞給PWM回(hui)(hui)路(lu)(PWM脈沖寬(kuan)度調制(zhi)(zhi)技術),用(yong)脈沖寬(kuan)度變化(hua)去控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)高(gao)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)回(hui)(hui)路(lu)中(zhong)功率(lv)器(qi)件的開閉時間的長短,最終實現輸(shu)(shu)出(chu)(chu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)和(he)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)盡量接近于(yu)主控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)統(tong)要求的數值。低(di)(di)(di)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)輔助(zhu)(zhu)單元,是(shi)一個標準低(di)(di)(di)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源,輸(shu)(shu)出(chu)(chu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)12V或者24V,用(yong)于(yu)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)期間,給電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)汽車上的用(yong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)供電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),比如電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池管(guan)理系(xi)統(tong)、熱(re)管(guan)理系(xi)統(tong)、汽車儀(yi)表等。功率(lv)單元,一般包括(kuo)輸(shu)(shu)入整流(liu),逆變電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)和(he)輸(shu)(shu)出(chu)(chu)整流(liu)3個部分,將(jiang)輸(shu)(shu)入的工頻交流(liu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)轉化(hua)成適合動(dong)力(li)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池系(xi)統(tong)能夠接受的適當電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)的直流(liu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。輸(shu)(shu)出(chu)(chu)端口,包括(kuo)低(di)(di)(di)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)輔助(zhu)(zhu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源正負極(ji)兩個pin口,高(gao)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)回(hui)(hui)路(lu)正負極(ji)兩個pin口,底盤(pan)地(di),通訊線(xian)(xian)CANH和(he)CANL(還可(ke)以有CAN屏蔽),充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)請(qing)求信(xin)(xin)號(hao)線(xian)(xian)。其(qi)中(zhong),高(gao)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)連個pin口與電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池包相連;充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)請(qing)求信(xin)(xin)號(hao)線(xian)(xian)用(yong)于(yu),充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機的輸(shu)(shu)入端口與外(wai)部電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源之(zhi)間完成充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)連接確認以后,通過“充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)請(qing)求信(xin)(xin)號(hao)”線(xian)(xian)向車輛控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)器(qi)發送充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)請(qing)求信(xin)(xin)號(hao),同時或延時一小段時間后,用(yong)低(di)(di)(di)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)輔助(zhu)(zhu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源給整車供電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。

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