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充電機如何控制過充?

2020/3/26 17:29:49??????點擊:

 我們(men)平時給充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)機充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian),當蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)充(chong)(chong)滿電(dian)(dian)(dian)后(hou)我們(men)就(jiu)直接(jie)把充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)機線拔掉,其實(shi)這樣的(de)作法(fa)是(shi)完全錯誤(wu)的(de)。充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)工作完成后(hou),需要(yao)給充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)機堵截充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)流,否則蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)將出現(xian)大量出氣(qi)、失水(shui)和溫升等過充(chong)(chong)的(de)反應(ying),這將危及到(dao)蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)的(de)使(shi)用壽命(ming)。因此(ci),隨時監(jian)測蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)的(de)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)情(qing)況是(shi)非常有必要(yao)的(de),確(que)保電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)能夠把電(dian)(dian)(dian)充(chong)(chong)足并且又(you)不過充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)。主要(yao)的(de)停充(chong)(chong)操控辦(ban)法(fa)有:

  1、恒流充(chong)電(dian)定時(shi)(shi)控制法,電(dian)池(chi)充(chong)電(dian)充(chong)滿時(shi)(shi),我們可以(yi)看(kan)電(dian)池(chi)的(de)容量大小(xiao),根(gen)據電(dian)流大小(xiao)來確認。這(zhe)樣我們就要先預定好充(chong)電(dian)的(de)時(shi)(shi)間(jian)(jian),預定的(de)充(chong)電(dian)時(shi)(shi)間(jian)(jian)一(yi)到,充(chong)電(dian)機(ji)就發布(bu)信號停充(chong)。定時(shi)(shi)器(qi)可由(you)時(shi)(shi)間(jian)(jian)繼(ji)電(dian)器(qi)充(chong)當(dang),或(huo)許由(you)單片機(ji)承當(dang)其(qi)功(gong)用。這(zhe)種辦(ban)法簡單,但充(chong)電(dian)時(shi)(shi)間(jian)(jian)不能依據電(dian)池(chi)充(chong)電(dian)前狀況(kuang)而自(zi)動調(diao)整,因此實(shi)際充(chong)電(dian)時(shi)(shi),可能會出現有(you)時(shi)(shi)欠充(chong)、有(you)時(shi)(shi)過充(chong)的(de)表象;

  2、電池溫(wen)(wen)度(du)(du)操,正常(chang)充(chong)(chong)電情況(kuang)下,蓄電池的(de)溫(wen)(wen)度(du)(du)變化(hua)并不明顯,當電池過充(chong)(chong)時(shi),內部氣體(ti)壓力將快速增大,負極板上氧化(hua)反響(xiang)(xiang)使內部發熱,溫(wen)(wen)度(du)(du)快速上升。因此,調查電池溫(wen)(wen)度(du)(du)的(de)改(gai)變,即可判別(bie)電池是否現已充(chong)(chong)溢。通常(chang)選(xuan)用兩只熱敏電阻(zu)別(bie)離檢測電池溫(wen)(wen)度(du)(du)和環境溫(wen)(wen)度(du)(du),當兩者溫(wen)(wen)差(cha)到(dao)達一定值(zhi)時(shi),即宣布停充(chong)(chong)信號。因為(wei)熱敏電阻(zu)動態響(xiang)(xiang)應速度(du)(du)較慢,故(gu)不能及時(shi)精確地檢測到(dao)電池的(de)滿充(chong)(chong)狀況(kuang)

                                                                                                                               

  3、電(dian)(dian)(dian)池端(duan)(duan)電(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)負增(zeng)量一般而言,當電(dian)(dian)(dian)池充(chong)足電(dian)(dian)(dian)后,其端(duan)(duan)電(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)將(jiang)呈現降低趨勢,據(ju)此(ci)可將(jiang)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池電(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)出現負增(zeng)長的(de)(de)時(shi)間作為停充(chong)時(shi)間。與溫度(du)(du)操(cao)控法比較,這(zhe)種(zhong)辦(ban)法呼應速度(du)(du)快,此(ci)外,電(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)的(de)(de)負增(zeng)量與電(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)的(de)(de)絕對值無關,因此(ci)這(zhe)種(zhong)停充(chong)操(cao)控辦(ban)法可適(shi)應具有不(bu)(bu)一樣(yang)單格電(dian)(dian)(dian)池數(shu)的(de)(de)蓄電(dian)(dian)(dian)池組充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)。此(ci)辦(ban)法的(de)(de)缺陷是(shi)一般的(de)(de)檢測器(qi)靈敏度(du)(du)和可靠性(xing)不(bu)(bu)高,同時(shi),當環境溫度(du)(du)較高時(shi),電(dian)(dian)(dian)池足夠電(dian)(dian)(dian)后電(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)的(de)(de)減小并(bing)不(bu)(bu)顯著,因此(ci)難以操(cao)控;

  4、使用極(ji)化(hua)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)操(cao)控通常情(qing)況下,蓄電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)極(ji)化(hua)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)出(chu)現在電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)剛(gang)好(hao)充滿后,選用有關(guan)專利(li)技術(shu)來(lai)測量每(mei)(mei)個(ge)單格電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)極(ji)化(hua)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya),這(zhe)樣就(jiu)使每(mei)(mei)個(ge)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)都可(ke)充電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)到它自身(shen)所(suo)(suo)需求的(de)(de)程度(du)。研討表明(ming),因為(wei)(wei)每(mei)(mei)個(ge)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)在幾何結構(gou)、化(hua)學(xue)性(xing)質及(ji)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)學(xue)特性(xing)等(deng)方面(mian)至少(shao)存在一些細(xi)微的(de)(de)不同,那么(me)依據(ju)每(mei)(mei)個(ge)單格電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)特性(xing)來(lai)斷(duan)定它所(suo)(suo)需求的(de)(de)充電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)水平會比把(ba)蓄電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)組作為(wei)(wei)一個(ge)整體(ti)來(lai)操(cao)控的(de)(de)辦法(fa)更加適宜一些。

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