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充電機在設計過程中需要注意什么事項?

2020/3/10 14:18:53??????點擊:

為(wei)了可以(yi)提高電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)再充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)期間的(de)可靠性和(he)穩定性,電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)機,我(wo)們將使(shi)用電(dian)(dian)(dian)源管理芯(xin)片以(yi)控制電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)壓和(he)電(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu),但(dan)是使(shi)用的(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)機充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)的(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)源管理電(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)的(de)芯(xin)片設計(ji)時,我(wo)們往(wang)往(wang)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)有工作充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)有些混亂機的(de)各個時期的(de)狀態和(he)電(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)設計(ji)方面的(de)考慮。

??電(dian)池充電(dian)方式簡介

??理論(lun)上為了防止(zhi)因(yin)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)不當而造成電(dian)(dian)池(chi)壽命(ming)縮短,我們將(jiang)電(dian)(dian)池(chi)的(de)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)過程分為四個(ge)階段:涓流充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(低(di)壓(ya)預充(chong),此(ci)狀態(tai)的(de)電(dian)(dian)池(chi)電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)比(bi)較低(di),實(shi)際(ji)使用(yong)時(shi),建議將(jiang)鋰(li)電(dian)(dian)池(chi)欠壓(ya)保護點提高,避免(mian)電(dian)(dian)池(chi)出(chu)現過放(fang)電(dian)(dian)現象)、恒流充(chong)電(dian)(dian)、恒壓(ya)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)以及充(chong)電(dian)(dian)終止(zhi)。

??典型的(de)(de)(de)蓄電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)方式是:先檢測待充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)的(de)(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya),在電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)較低情況下,先進行預(yu)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)為設(she)定的(de)(de)(de)最大(da)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)的(de)(de)(de)1/10,當(dang)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)升(sheng)到一定值后,進入標(biao)準充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)過程。標(biao)準充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)過程為:以最大(da)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)進行恒流(liu)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)持(chi)續穩定上升(sheng),當(dang)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)升(sheng)到接(jie)近設(she)定的(de)(de)(de)最大(da)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)時,改為恒壓(ya)(ya)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),此時,充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)逐(zhu)漸下降(jiang),當(dang)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)下降(jiang)至最大(da)充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)的(de)(de)(de)1/10時,充(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)結束(shu)。

??但在實際(ji)應用中,為增加電(dian)池(chi)(chi)充(chong)(chong)放電(dian)循(xun)環次數(shu)和縮短充(chong)(chong)電(dian)時間(jian),我們(men)會(hui)將鋰電(dian)池(chi)(chi)欠(qian)壓保護點(dian)提高,同時設定的充(chong)(chong)電(dian)終止電(dian)壓低于標稱值,這樣電(dian)池(chi)(chi)便不(bu)會(hui)存(cun)在過(guo)充(chong)(chong)與過(guo)放現象,且可(ke)以避開“預充(chong)(chong)電(dian)”階段(duan),直接(jie)進(jin)行大電(dian)流充(chong)(chong)電(dian),縮短充(chong)(chong)電(dian)時間(jian)。

??充電機電路設計應注意的事項

??若設計的蓄電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路沒有防(fang)倒灌(guan)保護,將(jiang)會(hui)產生許多(duo)危害(hai)。以輸(shu)(shu)(shu)出(chu)(chu)端(duan)(duan)接2節(jie)鋰(li)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池串聯(lian)為(wei)例,若僅(jin)將(jiang)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)去除(chu),蓄電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji)沒有移(yi)除(chu),電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池內的電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流倒灌(guan)至(zhi)(zhi)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路中,導致電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)量(liang)白白損失。且更嚴重的安全隱(yin)患是:對(dui)于(yu)降壓(ya)(ya)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)芯(xin)(xin)片來說,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流從(cong)輸(shu)(shu)(shu)出(chu)(chu)端(duan)(duan),經芯(xin)(xin)片內部功率管(guan)寄生的二極管(guan)倒灌(guan)至(zhi)(zhi)芯(xin)(xin)片的VIN端(duan)(duan),當電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路的輸(shu)(shu)(shu)出(chu)(chu)端(duan)(duan)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)(電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya))低于(yu)設定值(zhi)時,芯(xin)(xin)片FB點電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)相應的也(ye)會(hui)低于(yu)標稱(cheng)值(zhi),芯(xin)(xin)片開(kai)始工作來提高輸(shu)(shu)(shu)出(chu)(chu)端(duan)(duan)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya);由于(yu)輸(shu)(shu)(shu)入端(duan)(duan)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)幾(ji)乎與輸(shu)(shu)(shu)出(chu)(chu)端(duan)(duan)相等,對(dui)于(yu)降壓(ya)(ya)芯(xin)(xin)片來說,輸(shu)(shu)(shu)入端(duan)(duan)無法給輸(shu)(shu)(shu)出(chu)(chu)端(duan)(duan)提供能量(liang),導致FB點電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)一直(zhi)低于(yu)標稱(cheng)值(zhi),芯(xin)(xin)片進入占空比100%的工作狀態(tai)。

??如(ru)果輸入(ru)端(duan)的(de)(de)電(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)突然恢復,則輸入(ru)端(duan)的(de)(de)電(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)將(jiang)通過已(yi)接通的(de)(de)電(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)管(guan)(guan)將(jiang)能量直接傳輸到輸出端(duan)。由于輸入(ru)和(he)輸出之間的(de)(de)壓差(cha),一個相對較大的(de)(de)電(dian)流(liu)(liu)會在瞬間流(liu)(liu)過功率管(guan)(guan)。如(ru)果此(ci)(ci)時由于其他不可控制的(de)(de)原因(yin),導(dao)致(zhi)核心不能及時有效(xiao)地(di)響應(ying)關閉電(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)管(guan)(guan),則大電(dian)流(liu)(liu)可能導(dao)致(zhi)芯片至部(bu)分開關管(guan)(guan)損壞。因(yin)此(ci)(ci),在蓄電(dian)池充電(dian)電(dian)路的(de)(de)設(she)計中需要增加(jia)防回流(liu)(liu)措施。

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