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大功率充電機快速充電技術的應用

2019/3/18 14:53:11??????點擊:
隨著各種(zhong)蓄電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)的(de)(de)廣(guang)泛使(shi)用,快速(su)(su)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)技(ji)術(shu)已(yi)經引起人們(men)的(de)(de)廣(guang)泛重視。傳統的(de)(de)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)方(fang)(fang)法(fa)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)時(shi)(shi)間過長(chang),且由于(yu)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)過程過于(yu)簡單而會(hui)使(shi)蓄電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)壽命縮短,因此已(yi)經面臨淘汰。相應的(de)(de),一些新的(de)(de)快速(su)(su)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)方(fang)(fang)法(fa)開始涌現,并已(yi)應用于(yu)生產實踐(jian)中。同(tong)時(shi)(shi),充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源的(de)(de)發展也非常迅(xun)速(su)(su),在大(da)功率(lv)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)領(ling)域(yu),開關電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源發展迅(xun)速(su)(su),已(yi)經開始逐步(bu)替(ti)代傳統的(de)(de)相控電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源。本文中從快速(su)(su)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)原理、充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)方(fang)(fang)法(fa)、充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源以及(ji)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)控制的(de)(de)實現等角度,對快速(su)(su)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)技(ji)術(shu)進行了探討。
快速充電原理
蓄(xu)電池的(de)種(zhong)(zhong)類(lei)很多,目(mu)前應用最廣的(de)主(zhu)要是(shi)密封鉛酸(suan)蓄(xu)電池和鎳鎘(ge)電池。這2種(zhong)(zhong)蓄(xu)電池的(de)充放電原理都是(shi)一(yi)樣的(de),即都是(shi)通(tong)過化(hua)學反應產(chan)生正負離子(zi)形成電流(liu)。
電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)在(zai)(zai)充(chong)放電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)過程中(zhong)會(hui)產生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)氧氣,在(zai)(zai)密封(feng)式(shi)蓄電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)中(zhong),這(zhe)些正(zheng)極(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)產生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)氧氣可以通過隔膜和氣室被負極(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)吸(xi)收(shou)(shou),整個(ge)化學反應形成(cheng)一(yi)個(ge)循環的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)反應形式(shi)。就密封(feng)式(shi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)而言,它的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)內壓(ya)有(you)限,因此(ci)負極(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)吸(xi)收(shou)(shou)速(su)(su)度(du)(du)也是(shi)有(you)限的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)。如(ru)果充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)過高,正(zheng)極(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)產生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)氧氣的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)速(su)(su)度(du)(du)過快(kuai),負極(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)吸(xi)收(shou)(shou)速(su)(su)度(du)(du)跟不上(shang)氧氣的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)產生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)速(su)(su)度(du)(du),長時(shi)間之(zhi)后必然造(zao)(zao)成(cheng)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)失(shi)(shi)水,從而誘發電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)微(wei)短(duan)路硫酸化等失(shi)(shi)效(xiao)現象,損害電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)質量(liang),縮(suo)短(duan)其使用壽(shou)命。同時(shi)高速(su)(su)率充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)時(shi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)極(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)化會(hui)造(zao)(zao)成(cheng)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)內部(bu)壓(ya)力(li)上(shang)升,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)溫度(du)(du)上(shang)升,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)內阻(zu)升高,這(zhe)不僅會(hui)縮(suo)短(duan)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)壽(shou)命,而且有(you)可能對電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)造(zao)(zao)成(cheng)永久性傷害。蓄電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)這(zhe)一(yi)化學反應原(yuan)理是(shi)研究制定快(kuai)速(su)(su)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)方法(fa)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)根本(ben)。一(yi)方面,快(kuai)速(su)(su)充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)要盡(jin)量(liang)加快(kuai)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)化學反應,使充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)速(su)(su)度(du)(du)得到最大的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)提高;另(ling)一(yi)方面,又要保證(zheng)負極(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)吸(xi)收(shou)(shou)能力(li),使其能夠跟得上(shang)正(zheng)極(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)氧氣產生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)速(su)(su)度(du)(du),同時(shi)要盡(jin)可能消除電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)極(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)化現象。
提高(gao)蓄(xu)電池的化學(xue)反(fan)應(ying)速度(du)有2種方(fang)式,一是改進蓄(xu)電池的結構以(yi)降低其內阻和提高(gao)反(fan)應(ying)離(li)子的擴散(san)速度(du),二是改進蓄(xu)電池的充電方(fang)法。本文中對充電方(fang)法作了(le)重點(dian)論述。
大功率充電機快速充電技術的(de)應用
不同種類的蓄電池,具有不同的充放電曲線,其相應的充電方法也有很大的不同。在研究具體的充電方法時,要考慮到這一點以選擇合適的方法。 以鉛酸蓄電池為例,傳統的充電方法(恒流充電或恒壓充電)由于本身的弊端,已基本被淘汰。現行的充電方法大都是使其充電曲線盡可能地模擬蓄電池的最佳充電曲線。 60年代中期,美國科學家馬斯(J.A.MAS)提出了以最低出氣率為前提的蓄電池可接受的充電電流曲線,即任一時刻蓄電池能接受的充電電流為 I=I0expAt 式中:I0為初始充電電流;A為充電接受比;t為充電時間。上(shang)海施能電器設備有限公(gong)司始建(jian)于1984年,上海市高新技術企業,中國工業車輛優秀配套供應商,上海電器行業名優產品,主要生產工頻系列充電機,高頻系列充電機,鋰電池充電機系列放電機系列充放電機等電器產品。
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