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大功率充電機快速充電技術的應用

2019/3/18 14:53:11??????點擊:
隨著各種蓄電(dian)(dian)池(chi)的(de)廣泛使用,快速(su)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)技術已(yi)經引起(qi)人們的(de)廣泛重視。傳(chuan)統的(de)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)方(fang)法充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)時間過(guo)長,且由于充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)過(guo)程(cheng)過(guo)于簡單而(er)會使蓄電(dian)(dian)池(chi)壽命縮短(duan),因此(ci)已(yi)經面臨(lin)淘汰。相應(ying)的(de),一些(xie)新的(de)快速(su)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)方(fang)法開(kai)始(shi)涌現,并已(yi)應(ying)用于生(sheng)產實踐中(zhong)。同時,充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)源(yuan)的(de)發(fa)展也(ye)非常迅(xun)速(su),在(zai)大功率充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)領(ling)域,開(kai)關(guan)電(dian)(dian)源(yuan)發(fa)展迅(xun)速(su),已(yi)經開(kai)始(shi)逐步替代傳(chuan)統的(de)相控電(dian)(dian)源(yuan)。本文中(zhong)從快速(su)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)原理(li)、充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)方(fang)法、充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)源(yuan)以及充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)控制(zhi)的(de)實現等(deng)角度,對快速(su)充(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)技術進行了探討。
快速充電原理
蓄(xu)電(dian)池(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)種類(lei)很多,目前應(ying)用最廣的(de)(de)主要是密封鉛酸(suan)蓄(xu)電(dian)池(chi)(chi)和(he)鎳鎘電(dian)池(chi)(chi)。這2種蓄(xu)電(dian)池(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)充放電(dian)原理都(dou)是一樣的(de)(de),即(ji)都(dou)是通過化學(xue)反應(ying)產生正負離子(zi)形成電(dian)流。
電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)在充(chong)(chong)放(fang)電(dian)(dian)(dian)的(de)(de)過(guo)程中(zhong)會產(chan)(chan)生(sheng)(sheng)氧(yang)(yang)氣(qi)(qi)(qi),在密封(feng)式(shi)蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)中(zhong),這些正極產(chan)(chan)生(sheng)(sheng)的(de)(de)氧(yang)(yang)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)可以通(tong)過(guo)隔膜和氣(qi)(qi)(qi)室(shi)被負極吸(xi)收(shou),整個化(hua)(hua)學(xue)反(fan)應(ying)形成一(yi)個循環(huan)的(de)(de)反(fan)應(ying)形式(shi)。就密封(feng)式(shi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)而(er)言,它的(de)(de)內(nei)壓(ya)有限,因此(ci)負極的(de)(de)吸(xi)收(shou)速度(du)也是(shi)有限的(de)(de)。如(ru)果充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)過(guo)高,正極產(chan)(chan)生(sheng)(sheng)氧(yang)(yang)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)速度(du)過(guo)快,負極的(de)(de)吸(xi)收(shou)速度(du)跟不上(shang)(shang)氧(yang)(yang)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)產(chan)(chan)生(sheng)(sheng)速度(du),長時間之后(hou)必然造成電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)失水(shui),從而(er)誘發電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)微短路硫酸(suan)化(hua)(hua)等失效現象(xiang),損害電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)質量,縮(suo)短其使(shi)用(yong)壽(shou)命。同(tong)時高速率充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)時電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)極化(hua)(hua)會造成電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)內(nei)部(bu)壓(ya)力上(shang)(shang)升,電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)溫度(du)上(shang)(shang)升,電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)內(nei)阻升高,這不僅會縮(suo)短電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)壽(shou)命,而(er)且有可能(neng)對電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)造成永(yong)久性傷害。蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)這一(yi)化(hua)(hua)學(xue)反(fan)應(ying)原理是(shi)研究制定快速充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)方法的(de)(de)根本(ben)。一(yi)方面,快速充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)要盡(jin)量加快電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)化(hua)(hua)學(xue)反(fan)應(ying),使(shi)充(chong)(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)速度(du)得到(dao)最(zui)大的(de)(de)提高;另一(yi)方面,又要保證負極的(de)(de)吸(xi)收(shou)能(neng)力,使(shi)其能(neng)夠跟得上(shang)(shang)正極氧(yang)(yang)氣(qi)(qi)(qi)產(chan)(chan)生(sheng)(sheng)的(de)(de)速度(du),同(tong)時要盡(jin)可能(neng)消除電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)極化(hua)(hua)現象(xiang)。
提(ti)高蓄(xu)電池的(de)(de)化學反(fan)應速度有2種方(fang)式(shi),一是改進蓄(xu)電池的(de)(de)結(jie)構以降(jiang)低(di)其內(nei)阻和提(ti)高反(fan)應離子的(de)(de)擴散速度,二是改進蓄(xu)電池的(de)(de)充電方(fang)法(fa)。本文中對(dui)充電方(fang)法(fa)作了重(zhong)點論述。
大功率充電機快速充電技術的應(ying)用
不同種類的蓄電池,具有不同的充放電曲線,其相應的充電方法也有很大的不同。在研究具體的充電方法時,要考慮到這一點以選擇合適的方法。 以鉛酸蓄電池為例,傳統的充電方法(恒流充電或恒壓充電)由于本身的弊端,已基本被淘汰。現行的充電方法大都是使其充電曲線盡可能地模擬蓄電池的最佳充電曲線。 60年代中期,美國科學家馬斯(J.A.MAS)提出了以最低出氣率為前提的蓄電池可接受的充電電流曲線,即任一時刻蓄電池能接受的充電電流為 I=I0expAt 式中:I0為初始充電電流;A為充電接受比;t為充電時間。上海施能電(dian)器設備有限公司始建于1984年,上海市高新技術企業,中國工業車輛優秀配套供應商,上海電器行業名優產品,主要生產工頻系列充電機,高頻系列充電機,鋰電池充電機系列放電機系列充放電機等電器產品。
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